Report on Cleveland (United States) — May 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 5 (May 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Cleveland (United States) Single ash burst generates a plume to >10 km altitude
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Cleveland (United States). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:5. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199405-311240.
52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A vigorous steam plume was observed by pilots on 29 April and by AVO observers on 10 May. No ash was observed on 10 May either in the plume or on the flanks of the volcano. A single ash burst on 25 May generated a plume that rose to ~10.5 km altitude according to two pilot reports between 1700 and 1800 in the afternoon. The plume was described as dark gray and moderately dense by one pilot. Weather clouds obscured the view from satellites immediately following the eruption, but NWS satellite imagery later showed a small volcanic cloud drifting NE over the Bering Sea at ~5 km altitude. Apparently the activity consisted of a single burst without a sustained eruption; no additional eruptive activity was reported through mid-June.
Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Information Contacts: AVO; J. Lynch, SAB.