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Report on Kilauea (United States) — August 1994


Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 8 (August 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Kilauea (United States) New lava flow advances over a fault scarp; ocean entries remain active

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Kilauea (United States) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199408-332010


United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

"Lava continued to enter the ocean in the W Kamoamoa/Lae Apuki area. Surface flows broke out on the bench, directly behind the littoral cone formed in July. These flows extended the active bench area 300-400 m W and formed a new tube parallel to the shoreline. Lava initially entered the ocean along a 500-m-wide front, but by the end of August entries had consolidated and lava entered the ocean along a 150-m-wide front. Additional breakouts resurfaced much of the older part of the bench early in the month. Small bench collapses and moderate-sized littoral explosions were observed towards mid-month. High surf on 23-24 August deposited sand and debris 50 m inland, along the entire front of the bench. Breakouts immediately behind the active ocean entries covered parts of the new bench and the storm deposit. There were no major bench collapses during the last half of August; material swept in by the storm appeared to support and slow the seaward movement of the bench.

"On 16 August a small pahoehoe flow broke out of the tube at 90 m elevation. A much larger channelized aa and pahoehoe flow broke out at 285 m on 20 August and rapidly advanced below 90 m elevation. The flow was active along its entire length, and by the end of the month fingers of active lava extended below the Paliuli fault scarp.

"The pond in Pu`u `O`o was active throughout August and its surface fluctuated at 79-84 m below the crater rim. Circulation in the pond was sluggish."

Geological Summary. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: T. Mattox, HVO.