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Report on Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001) — February 1995

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 20, no. 2 (February 1995)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001) Lidar data from Russia and Germany

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1995. Report on Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 20:2. Smithsonian Institution.



Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lidar data from Russia during April through December 1994 (table 1) continued to show a volcanic aerosol layer over Obninsk, generally between 14 and 21 km altitude. Throughout most of 1994 (see Bulletin v. 19, no. 4 for January-March 1994 data), backscattering ratios and integrated backscatter for the Nd-YAG wavelength generally remained stable at 1.2-1.4 and 0.18-0.34 x 10-3, respectively. However, after 4 November the backscattering ratio was consistently-3.

Table 1. Lidar data from Russia and Germany showing altitudes of aerosol layers; some layers have multiple peaks. Backscattering ratios are for the Nd-YAG wavelength of 0.53 microns, with equivalent ruby values (0.69 microns) in parentheses for data from Germany. The integrated value shows total backscatter, expressed in steradians^-1, integrated over 150-m intervals from 15-30 km at Obninsk, and over 300-m intervals from the tropopause to 30 km at Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

DATE LAYER ALTITUDE (km) (peak) BACKSCATTERING RATIO BACKSCATTERING INTEGRATED
Obninsk, Russia (55°N, 38°E)
12 Apr 1994 11.3-23.9 (18.7) 1.23 0.22 x 10-3
17 Apr 1994 13.9-16.4 (15.7) 1.32 0.33 x 10-3
17 Apr 1994 16.4-19.3 (18.5) 1.35 --
17 Apr 1994 19.3-24.8 (20.3) 1.33 --
21 Apr 1994 11.8-20.5 (18.4) 1.37 0.33 x 10-3
21 Apr 1994 20.5-23.1 (21.6) 1.34 --
28 Apr 1994 12.1-21.1 (17.5) 1.28 0.23 x 10-3
13 May 1994 13.9-21.2 (19.9) 1.20 0.18 x 10-3
15 May 1994 13.5-17.9 (11.0) 1.26 0.22 x 10-3
15 May 1994 17.9-21.5 (19.7) 1.23 --
16 May 1994 11.6-17.6 (16.6) 1.24 0.22 x 10-3
16 May 1994 17.6-21.4 (19.1) 1.23 --
08 Jun 1994 14.9-21.8 (19.9) 1.24 0.22 x 10-3
28 Jun 1994 15.1-24.5 (18.7) 1.23 0.22 x 10-3
08 Jul 1994 12.4-14.2 (14.0) 1.12 0.23 x 10-3
08 Jul 1994 14.2-25.1 (18.8) 1.24 --
10 Jul 1994 12.0-14.0 (13.7) 1.12 0.23 x 10-3
10 Jul 1994 14.0-25.1 (18.4) 1.24 --
11 Jul 1994 13.0-14.1 (13.7) 1.12 0.24 x 10-3
11 Jul 1994 14.1-26.8 (18.8) 1.25 --
28 Jul 1994 10.5-14.0 (13.1) 1.09 0.23 x 10-3
28 Jul 1994 14.0-24.5 (19.0) 1.26 --
19 Aug 1994 11.5-25.4 (17.2) 1.21 0.21 x 10-3
06 Sep 1994 12.7-25.1 (17.6) 1.33 0.29 x 10-3
15 Sep 1994 12.6-15.5 (14.8) 1.24 0.27 x 10-3
15 Sep 1994 15.5-25.3 (17.6) 1.28 --
07 Oct 1994 13.1-24.8 (15.1) 1.44 0.35 x 10-3
08 Oct 1994 13.0-25.1 (18.8) 1.26 0.25 x 10-3
09 Oct 1994 13.3-25.1 (18.8) 1.25 0.23 x 10-3
10 Oct 1994 10.7-16.1 (14.9) 1.25 0.24 x 10-3
10 Oct 1994 16.1-20.3 (17.6) 1.27 --
24 Oct 1994 13.3-22.7 (19.7) 1.23 0.21 x 10-3
04 Nov 1994 13.1-20.2 (19.6) 1.27 0.25 x 10-3
11 Nov 1994 16.0-30.0 (20.5) 1.14 0.11 x 10-3
05 Dec 1994 16.6-20.6 (19.4) 1.10 0.08 x 10-3
05 Dec 1994 20.6-24.8 (24.1) 1.15 --
10 Dec 1994 17.0-22.1 (19.3) 1.14 0.08 x 10-3
11 Dec 1994 13.3-21.7 (19.0) 1.16 0.12 x 10-3
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (47.5°N, 11.0°E)
01 Dec 1994 12-31 (17.9) 1.17 (1.4) --
01 Dec 1994 11-30 (22.0) 1.20 (1.5) --
06 Dec 1994 11-30 (18.4) 1.19 (1.5) --
15 Dec 1994 11-30 (18.2) 1.25 (1.6) --
17 Dec 1994 12-29 (16.2) 1.23 (1.6) --
06 Jan 1994 10-30 (21.3) 1.25 (1.6) --
16 Jan 1994 11-29 (21.3) 1.28 (1.6) --
19 Jan 1994 8-28 (18.0) 1.29 (1.7) --
27 Jan 1994 9-26 (19.0) 1.25 (1.6) --
07 Feb 1994 11-27 (18.1) 1.24 (1.6) --

During December through early February 1995, lidar data from Germany revealed the continued presence of an aerosol layer over Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Peak altitude during this period was usually 16-19 km. The backscattering ratio for the Nd-YAG wavelength, 1.2-1.3, has been unchanged since June 1994 (see Bulletin v. 19, nos. 10-11).

In Germany, a secondary peak on 1 December and the above-20-km peaks on 6 and 16 January may have been fresh volcanic aerosols caused by the 19 September eruption of Rabaul or the 1 October eruption of Kliuchevskoi (Bulletin v. 19, nos. 8-9). A secondary peak at ~24 km altitude was also detected on 5 December at Obninsk, Russia.

Information Contacts: Sergey Khmelevtsov, Institute of Experimental Meteorology, Lenin Str. 82, Obninsk, Russia; Horst Jager, Fraunhofer -- Institut fur Atmospharische Umweltforschung, Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, D-8100 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.