Report on Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — November 1988
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 11 (November 1988)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) Ash emission continues; new fumarole
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1988. Report on Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) (McClelland, L., ed.). Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 13:11. Smithsonian Institution.
37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
When geologists visited ... on 16 November, fine pink/red ash emerged from Hitchhiker vent, and moist acidic tephra fell near 1978 Crater. Since the last visit, on  October, up to 10 mm of ash had been deposited near its E rim. A new noisy fumarole (~1 m in diameter) discharged transparent blue vapor from the W edge of 1978 Crater's floor, near the location of the ephemeral vent documented 20 November 1987. Other fumaroles emitted gases at temperatures as high as 681°C. No incandescence was observed.
Geological Summary. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.
Information Contacts: E.F. Lloyd, NZGS Rotorua.