Report on Cleveland (United States) — 21 March-27 March 2001
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 21 March-27 March 2001
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2001. Report on Cleveland (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 21 March-27 March 2001. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
On 20 March AVO could no longer detect the ash cloud resulting from the 19 March eruption of Cleveland. Based on satellite data, AVO estimates that the explosive eruption started at 1430 on 19 March and may have lasted as long as 6 hours. The National Weather Service estimated the top of the ash cloud was as high as 9.1 km a.s.l. No ashfall was reported in Nikolski, 75 km E of the volcano. A thermal anomaly detected in satellite imagery following the explosive activity was still visible as of 23 March. The elevated temperature indicated by the anomaly is most likely the result of continued unrest at the volcano and the cooling of recently erupted material.
Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 it produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.