Report on Kilauea (United States) — 24 October-30 October 2001
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
24 October-30 October 2001
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2001. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 24 October-30 October 2001. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Surface lava flows were visible above and on Kilauea's Pulama pali scarp and on the coastal flat. Lava continued to flow through lava tubes, entering the sea at the E Kupapa`u and Kamoamoa entries. By 28 October the rapidly growing lava bench at Kamoamoa was 120 m seaward of the old sea cliff in comparison to 80-100 m the previous week. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at both Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. On 24 October short bursts of relatively high amplitude tremor returned to Pu`u `O`o after being nearly absent for 2-3 days. During 23-24 October tiltmeters at the summit and Pu`u `O`o recorded slow deflation. No significant deformation was recorded during the rest of the week.
Geological Summary. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.