Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador) — 5 December-11 December 2001
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 December-11 December 2001
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2001. Report on Tungurahua (Ecuador). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 December-11 December 2001. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Observations at Tungurahua during 26 November to 3 December revealed that volcanic activity was low. A fairly continuous pulsating plume of steam and gas was emitted from the summit crater. On 2 December five small ash emissions occurred in 70 minutes that reached 500-1,000 m above the crater and drifted to the N. Ash emissions were also observed during 2-3 December. Seismic activity was dominated by long period events, with about 15-40 occurring per day.
Geologic Background. Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater, accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.