Report on Semeru (Indonesia) — 20 March-26 March 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 March-26 March 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Semeru (Indonesia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 March-26 March 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Volcanic and seismic activity remained high at Semeru during 11-17 March. Observations on 12, 14, and 17 March revealed that a gray plume rose 300-400 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by 444 explosion earthquakes, and there was a decrease in the number of tectonic and deep volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.