Report on Villarrica (Chile) — 10 April-16 April 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 10 April-16 April 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Villarrica (Chile). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 10 April-16 April 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
39.42°S, 71.93°W; summit elev. 2847 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Observations of Villarrica on 9 April revealed that no incandescence or explosive noises occurred in the volcano's crater. A lava lake, whose surface was 200 m below the crater rim, was last seen at the volcano on 19 January. At that time explosions at Villarrica occurred every 5-10 minutes.
Geologic Background. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.