Report on Papandayan (Indonesia) — 6 November-12 November 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 6 November-12 November 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Papandayan (Indonesia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 6 November-12 November 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
7.32°S, 107.73°E; summit elev. 2665 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
News agencies reported that an eruption began at Papandayan on 11 November. According to a police officer on duty in a nearby town, ash and lava emitted from one of the volcano's craters began flowing into the nearby Cibeureum River at 1600. Evacuations from towns near the volcano involved 1,000-2,000 residents. The Darwin VAAC reported that a small, low-level plume may have been visible on satellite imagery.
Geologic Background. Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the north gives a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have created an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater"). After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 people, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.