Report on Papandayan (Indonesia) — 11 December-17 December 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 11 December-17 December 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Papandayan (Indonesia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 11 December-17 December 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
7.32°S, 107.73°E; summit elev. 2665 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 2-8 December, ash plumes continually emitted from Papandayan's Baru crater rose 150-400 m above the rim and drifted NE. Explosions occurred on 4 December at 0700 and on 8 December at 1758. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes decreased during the report week, while deep volcanic and tectonic earthquakes increased in comparison to the previous week. Papandayan remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).
Geologic Background. Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the north gives a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have created an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater"). After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 people, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.