Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico) — 5 March-11 March 2003
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 March-11 March 2003
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2003. Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 March-11 March 2003. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Several emissions of steam, gas, and ash occurred during 5-11 March associated with the continued destruction of Popocatépetl's lava dome. The largest reported emission, on 5 March at 1005, produced a steam-and-ash cloud that reached a height of 1 km above the crater. Also, a microearthquake and isolated episodes of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were recorded. The Alert Level at Popocatépetl remained at Yellow Phase II, with a 12-km-radius restricted area.
Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.