Report on Galeras (Colombia) — 21 July-27 July 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
21 July-27 July 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Galeras (Colombia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 21 July-27 July 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that an activity increase at Galeras during several days prior to 24 July consisted of emissions that rose ~600 m above the volcano's summit. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery. According to a news report, a wide area around the volcano was declared off limits to visitors.
Geological Summary. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.