Report on Colima (Mexico) — 29 September-5 October 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 September-5 October 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Colima (Mexico). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 September-5 October 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A new growing lava dome was sighted in Colima's summit crater on 28 September, following three days of vigorous fumarolic emissions. Starting on 30 September, block-and-ash flows moved down the volcano's W, WNW, and N flanks. Blocks of lava began to travel down the volcano's N and WNW flanks around 1 October, reaching lengths of ~300 m on the N flanks and ~100 m on the WNW. On 5 October, block-and-ash flows continued to travel as far as 2 km, and about 30 small explosions produced plumes to a maximum height of 400 m above the volcano.
Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the high point of the complex) on the north and the historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of late-Pleistocene cinder cones is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, producing thick debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions have destroyed the summit (most recently in 1913) and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.