Report on Reventador (Ecuador) — 1 December-7 December 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 December-7 December 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Reventador (Ecuador). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 December-7 December 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
According to the Washington VAAC, satellite imagery on 2 December showed an ash plume from Reventador at a height of ~5 km extending W of the volcano. Also, IG reported to the VAAC that ash was seen drifting NW on 4 December. A hot spot was visible on infrared satellite imagery. On 4 December, Strombolian activity was seen in Reventador's crater. Since 9 November, volcanic material continued to gradually fill the crater and generate a lava flow down one flank. Activity was accompanied by a gas column that reached a maximum height of 3 km.
Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.