Report on St. Helens (United States) — 29 June-5 July 2005
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 June-5 July 2005
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2005. Report on St. Helens (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 June-5 July 2005. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
46.2°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2549 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 29 June to 5 July, growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continued, accompanied by seismic and deformation data trends similar to those of the previous few weeks. On 2 July at 0630 a rockfall from the growing lava dome removed a large piece of the top of the dome, producing an ash plume that rose above the crater rim and generating a substantial seismic signal. Persistent smaller rockfalls from the growing lava dome built talus aprons on the W and NE flanks of the dome.
Geologic Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. Prior to 2200 years ago, tephra, lava domes, and pyroclastic flows were erupted, forming the older St. Helens edifice, but few lava flows extended beyond the base of the volcano. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the north flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.