Report on Kilauea (United States) — 1 March-7 March 2006
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 March-7 March 2006
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2006. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 March-7 March 2006. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 2-7 March, no surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's Pulama pali fault scarp, which had been the case since 8 February. Lava flowed into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Beginning on 1 March, lava emerged from the PKK lava tube between the 45- and 75-m elevations, and lava streams extended 200-400 m downstream from this point. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with shallow earthquakes continuing to occur beneath the summit area and the upper east rift zone. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. Slight inflation and deflation occurred at the volcano.
Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.