Report on Galeras (Colombia) — 29 March-4 April 2006
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
29 March-4 April 2006
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2006. Report on Galeras (Colombia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 March-4 April 2006. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
An increase in the energy of earthquakes at Galeras, which began on 28 March, ended on the 29th. The number of earthquakes beneath the volcano decreased during 28 March to 3 April (an average of 66 earthquakes was recorded daily), in comparison to the previous week (an average of 89 earthquakes was recorded daily). During the report period, steam columns rose up to ~500 m above the volcano (or 15,700 ft a.s.l.) and the outer layer of the lava dome at the volcano's summit cooled in comparison to previous weeks. Galeras remained at Alert Level 2 ("likely eruption in days or weeks").
Geological Summary. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.