Report on Llaima (Chile) — 2 April-8 April 2008
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2 April-8 April 2008
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2008. Report on Llaima (Chile). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2 April-8 April 2008. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
38.692°S, 71.729°W; summit elev. 3125 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 March-4 April, fumarolic plumes from Llaima drifted several tens of kilometers mainly to the SE. Explosions produced ash and gas emissions. An overflight on 2 April of the main crater revealed that gas, pyroclastic material, and ash emissions, occasionally accompanied by small explosions, originated from three cones. On 4 April, several explosions were heard and incandescence was reflected in a gas-and-ash plume.
Geologic Background. Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic, stratovolcano has a volume of 400 km3. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 km3 Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by Strombolian, Hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.