Report on Kilauea (United States) — 3 June-9 June 2009
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 June-9 June 2009
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2009. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 June-9 June 2009. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 3-9 June, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. The Kupapa'u ocean entry was again active starting on 4 or 5 June. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface flows above and in the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision, and on the TEB flow field.
The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Small amounts of tephra, including Pele's hair and fresh spatter, were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume during the reporting period. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity, about 100 m below the floor of the crater, produced bright incandescence. Lava was clearly visible in the Halema'uma'u Overlook Vent webcam on 5 June. On 8 and 9 June, sounds resembling rushing gas and rockfalls were heard in the vicinity of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; measurements were 700 and 800 tonnes per day on 4 and 5 June, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.
Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.