Report on Galeras (Colombia) — 26 September-2 October 2012
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 26 September-2 October 2012
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2012. Report on Galeras (Colombia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 26 September-2 October 2012. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INGEOMINAS reported that during 25 September-2 October cameras around Galeras recorded emissions that were mostly water vapor drifting NW. However, on 27 and 28 September the emissions contained ash. An earthquake swarm detected on 28 September was characterized by M 1.4 events that occurred within 13 km of the crater at depths less than 8 km. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").
Geologic Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.