Report on Cleveland (United States) — 1 May-7 May 2013
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 May-7 May 2013
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Report on Cleveland (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 May-7 May 2013. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
AVO reported that on 4 May the infrasound network detected three short-duration explosions from Cleveland at 0500, 0717, and 1144. A small, low-altitude ash cloud along with high surface temperatures at the summit were observed in satellite images starting at 0717. In a report posted at 1822 AVO noted that both webcam and satellite images suggested continuous low-level emissions of gas, steam, and minor amounts of ash over the past several hours with a faint plume drifting E below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
On 5 May the amplitude of the Cleveland infrasonic tremor, as measured by the ground-coupled airwaves on the Okmok seismic network, 120 km NE, decreased from its peak activity the evening before. Satellite images again detected continuous low-level emissions of gas, steam, and minor amounts of ash producing a faint plume that drifted E below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Explosions were detected at 1123 on 5 May and 0800 on 6 May. A thermal anomaly continued to be detected. A news article stated that some airplanes were diverted away from Cleveland.
Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.