Report on Krysuvik-Trolladyngja (Iceland) — 5 May-11 May 2021
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
5 May-11 May 2021
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2021. Report on Krysuvik-Trolladyngja (Iceland). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 May-11 May 2021. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
63.917°N, 22.067°W; summit elev. 360 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
IMO reported that the fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 5-11 May. On 2 May pulsating high jets of lava from crater 5 prompted authorities to widen the restricted zone because; ash and lava could be deposited several hundred of meters away. Cycles of lava jetting and effusion periodically continued during 3-7 May, with lava steadily enlarging the flow field. By 4 May the area of the flow field had grown to 1.41 square kilometers, and the total volume erupted was 23 million cubic meters. Activity was quiet for a period of time during 8-9 May, though IMO noted that fountaining quickly resumed during the morning of 9 May. High jets of lava occurred every 10 minutes, sometimes with jets rising as high as 300 m. Tephra (a few centimeters in diameter) was deposited as far as 1 km from the vent and small amounts of tephra were reported in Gríndavík. Hot deposits have caused small vegetation fires within a few hundreds of meters around the eruption site. On 10 May gas plumes rose higher than 2 km a.s.l. The eruption area was closed due to local wildfires and unfavorable wind conditions. Very high fountains were visible in Reykjavik. On 11 May lava fountains again rose up to 300 m tall and were seen from the capital. The cone had grown to about 50 m high. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions.
Geological Summary. The Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system is described by the Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes as an approximately 50-km-long composite fissure swarm trending about N38°E, including a 30-km-long swarm of fissures, with no central volcano. It is one of the volcanic systems arranged en-echelon along the Reykjanes Peninsula west of Kleifarvatn lake. The Fagradalsfjall and Krýsuvík fissure swarms are considered splits or secondary swarms of the Krýsuvík–Trölladyngja volcanic system. Small shield volcanoes have produced a large portion of the erupted volume within the system. Several eruptions have taken place since the settlement of Iceland, including the eruption of a large basaltic lava flow from the Ogmundargigar crater row around the 12th century. The latest eruption, identified through tephrochronology, took place during the 14th century.