Report on Krysuvik-Trolladyngja (Iceland) — 22 December-28 December 2021
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
22 December-28 December 2021
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2021. Report on Krysuvik-Trolladyngja (Iceland). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 22 December-28 December 2021. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
63.917°N, 22.067°W; summit elev. 360 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) reported that the earthquake swarm at the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system was ongoing at least through 26 December. The swarm began at 1800 on 21 December in an area 2-4 km NE of Geldingadalir. Around 3,000 daily earthquakes recorded by the seismic network were mostly located near Fagradalsfjall volcano at depths of 5-8 km, though some were located near the town of Grindavík and lake Kleifarvatn. The swarm was episodic with periods of intense activity. Three earthquakes over M 4 were recorded near Grindavík on 24 December; the largest was a M 4.8. Deformation during 20-26 December was clear in InSAR data, and similar to the deformation observed at the end of February as the dike intrusion was starting near Fagradalsfjall. The seismicity and deformation indicated that magma was moving at depth, likely along the same dyke system that fed the previous eruption at Geldingadalir. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Geological Summary. The Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system is described by the Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes as an approximately 50-km-long composite fissure swarm trending about N38°E, including a 30-km-long swarm of fissures, with no central volcano. It is one of the volcanic systems arranged en-echelon along the Reykjanes Peninsula west of Kleifarvatn lake. The Fagradalsfjall and Krýsuvík fissure swarms are considered splits or secondary swarms of the Krýsuvík–Trölladyngja volcanic system. Small shield volcanoes have produced a large portion of the erupted volume within the system. Several eruptions have taken place since the settlement of Iceland, including the eruption of a large basaltic lava flow from the Ogmundargigar crater row around the 12th century. The latest eruption, identified through tephrochronology, took place during the 14th century.