Report on Kilauea (United States) — 17 January-23 January 2001
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
17 January-23 January 2001
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2001. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 17 January-23 January 2001. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
According to HVO, a broad lava flow traveled down Pulama pali as a continuation of the series of lava lobes that developed and descended the pali for the previous 2-3 weeks. In addition, a surface breakout E of the main flow traveled down the forested slope. Small volumes of lava began to enter the sea on 21 January, while most of the lava flowed at the surface and stopped short of the coastline. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera was at low-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone showed no deformation.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.