Report on Kilauea (United States) — 23 January-29 January 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
23 January-29 January 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 23 January-29 January 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 23-29 January lava entered the sea at the W portion of the Kamoamoa entry, and to a lesser extent at the E Kupapa`u entry. Surface lava flows emerging along the Kamoamoa lava tube system traveled down the Pulama pali scarp. On 22 January a lava flow was visible on Pu`u `O`o's crater floor. Generally, volcanic tremor remained moderate at Pu`u `O`o. The swarm of long-period earthquakes at Kilauea's summit were less regular than they had been for more than a month. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no evidence of significant deformation.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.