Report on Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom) — 28 May-3 June 2003
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
28 May-3 June 2003
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2003. Report on Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 May-3 June 2003. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills decreased slightly during 23-30 May. Most activity was focused on the lava dome's ENE flank, producing rockfalls and numerous pyroclastic flows along the N side of the Tar River Valley and occasionally in White's and Tuitt's ghauts. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows also spilled off the lava dome's northern flanks onto Farrell's Plain. The lava dome began to grow more centrally, building vertically upwards and accumulating debris on the summit region. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately average at the beginning of the week, but increased towards the middle of the week. Small low-level ash plumes were occasionally visible on satellite imagery.
Geological Summary. The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. The volcano is flanked by Pleistocene complexes to the north and south. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east by edifice collapse, was formed about 2000 years ago as a result of the youngest of several collapse events producing submarine debris-avalanche deposits. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits, including those from an eruption that likely preceded the 1632 CE settlement of the island, allowing cultivation on recently devegetated land to near the summit. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but no historical eruptions were recorded until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)