Report on Kilauea (United States) — 28 January-3 February 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
28 January-3 February 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 January-3 February 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 29 January to 1 February mild volcanic activity occurred at Kilauea, with incandescence visible at vents in Pu`u `O`o's crater and small surface flows on the central or southern part of the rootless shield complex, an area ~0.5 km SW of Pu`u `O`o. Starting on 18 January, when the MLK vent formed, the distance across the summit caldera decreased significantly, ending a period of increasing extension rate since the Mother's Day event in May 2002. During the report period, weak tremor occurred at Kilauea's summit along with a few long-period earthquakes. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o remained moderate. Small deflation and inflation events occurred at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.