Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) — 9 June-15 June 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
9 June-15 June 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 9 June-15 June 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
7.942°S, 112.95°E; summit elev. 2329 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
According to DVGHM, a phreatic eruption at the Bromo cone of Tengger caldera on 8 June at 1526 produced an ash cloud that rose 3 km above the volcano. The eruption lasted ~20 minutes. Ash drifted WNW and rocks and ash were deposited in a ~300 m radius around the volcano's crater. Two tourists were killed and five people were injured. At this time the volcano was at Alert Level 3. After the explosion, only steam and gas were emitted until an explosion on 14 June at 0819 sent ash ~100 m above the volcano. Around 15 June activity generally decreased and the Alert Level was reduced to 2. The public was prohibited from entering within a 1-km-radius around the crater.
Geological Summary. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Agence France-Presse (AFP)