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Report on Kilauea (United States) — 13 October-19 October 2004


Kilauea

Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
13 October-19 October 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 13 October-19 October 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Weekly Report (13 October-19 October 2004)

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


During 13-18 October, surface lava flows were visible on the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp and all vents in the crater of Pu`u `O`o were incandescent. Tremor remained at moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o and essentially no tremor was recorded at Kilauea's summit. A M 4.5 earthquake on 13 October at 1318 occurred about 6 km S of Pu`u `O`o at a depth of ~9 km. The earthquake permanently offset the Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter and several others on the volcano. During the report period, little deformation occurred.

Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)