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Report on Kilauea (United States) — 8 December-14 December 2004


Kilauea

Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
8 December-14 December 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 8 December-14 December 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Weekly Report (8 December-14 December 2004)

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


During 8-14 December, surface lava flows were visible along all three arms of the PKK lava flow, from high on the Pulama pali fault scarp and on the coastal flat. By 13 December, lava entered the sea at the E Lae`apuki delta. During the report period, all vents were incandescent in the crater of Pu`u `O`o. Overall seismicity at the summit was low, but long-period earthquakes continued to occur. Tremor was essentially absent at the summit and moderate at Pu`u `O`o.

Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)