Report on Kilauea (United States) — 11 January-17 January 2006
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
11 January-17 January 2006
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2006. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 11 January-17 January 2006. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 11-14 January, lava from Kilauea continued to enter the sea at the East Lae`apuki area, building a new lava delta. Surface lava flows were visible on the Pulama pali fault scarp. On 10 January the summit deflation switched abruptly to inflation after a loss of 5.2 microradians. Relatively high tremor occurred at this time. Tremor quickly dropped, becoming weak to moderate when deflation ended, with seismicity punctuated by a few small earthquakes. By 13 January, background volcanic tremor was near normal levels at Kilauea's summit and reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o. On 14 January, the lava delta was about 500 m long (parallel to shore) and still only 140 m wide.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.