Report on Ruapehu (New Zealand) — 7 September-13 September 2016
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 September-13 September 2016
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2016. Report on Ruapehu (New Zealand) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 September-13 September 2016. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
39.28°S, 175.57°E; summit elev. 2797 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
On 7 September GeoNet reported that the temperature of Ruapehu’s summit Crater Lake had been declining, cooling to 12 ºC on 15 August which was the lowest temperature since the 1995/1996 eruptions, but had recently started to rapidly heat. The temperature began to slowly and variably rise in late August; however, by 2 September a rising trend was apparent. On 4 September tremor levels also increased, and remained elevated. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Green.
Geological Summary. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least four cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The dominantly andesitic 110 km3 volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and surrounded by another 100 km3 ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the NW-flank Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit. A series of subplinian eruptions took place between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent. The broad summait area and flank contain at least six vents active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded from the Te Wai a-Moe (Crater Lake) vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as recently as 3,000 years ago. Lahars resulting from phreatic eruptions at the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and lower river valleys.