Report on Kilauea (United States) — 30 March-5 April 2022
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
30 March-5 April 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 30 March-5 April 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 30 March through 5 April. Lava from a vent flowed into the active W part of the lava lake and onto the crater floor. Numerous and sustained ooze outs of lava along the lake’s margins; effusion along interior surface fractures persisted during the week but showed decreasing activity. On 31 March a hornito that was forming on the E side of the lake exhibited spattering throughout the day. HVO noted that by 29 March about 64 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted since the current eruption began, raising the crater floor by 96 m (315 ft). The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 3,100 tons/day, based on measurements made on 31 March. During 2-5 April continued ooze outs were occurring along the E half of the crater floor and NW margin, but at a decreased rate, and crustal overturning occurred occasionally on the NW margin. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.