Report on Taal (Philippines) — 6 April-12 April 2022
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
6 April-12 April 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Taal (Philippines). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 6 April-12 April 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
14.002°N, 120.993°E; summit elev. 311 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Taal to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) on 9 April, noting a significant decrease in activity during the previous two weeks. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high during the first three weeks of March, peaking at 21,211 tonnes per day on 16 March, but dropped on 3 April to an average of 240 tonnes per day; the flux again decreased to 103 tonnes per day on 8 April, the lowest number recorded since unrest began in 2021. During 26 March-9 April only 86 small-magnitude and imperceptible volcanic earthquakes had been recorded, and by 31 March background tremor associated with shallow hydrothermal activity had ceased. Electronic tilt monitoring on Taal Volcano Island, continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and InSAR analysis of Sentinel-1 satellite data indicated continuing deflation of Taal, particularly on the SE flank. Diffuse plumes from the lake had also decreased in frequency, though they rose 600-900 m above the surface during 10-12 April. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below instrumental detection limits on 11 April. PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Geological Summary. Taal is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. Though not topographically prominent, its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the landscape of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 km2 surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all observed eruptions. The island is composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges have caused many fatalities.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)