Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

 Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 40, Number 11 (November 2015)


Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Ibu (Indonesia)

Continued lava dome growth with occasional weak plumes through November 2015



Ibu (Indonesia) — November 2015 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued lava dome growth with occasional weak plumes through November 2015

During the latter half of 2013, Ibu's lava dome continued to grow, and observers noted incandescent material and occasional weak white-to-gray plumes (BGVN 38:11). This report discusses activity be-tween March 2014 and November 2015.

Reports from the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) indicated that during 1 August-17 November 2015 white-to-gray plumes rose as high as 500 m above the craters. Seismicity during this period was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and continuing lava dome growth in the N part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.

Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were observed frequently, and ranged from 1/month (February 2016) to 11/month (July 2014, April 2015, May 2015). Most were one pixel, but three pixels were observed on 5 September 2014 and 22 November 2014. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected numerous, almost continuous anomalies during the past year, though the frequency decreased from almost daily to averaging a few anomalies per week starting in late October 2015.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM, also known as PVMBG), Saut Simatupang, 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA, a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).

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 Atmospheric Effects


The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

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 Special Announcements


Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

View Special Announcements Reports

 Additional Reports


Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Turkey


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption


Africa (northeastern) and Red Sea


False Report of Somalia Eruption


Africa (eastern)


False Report of Elgon Eruption


Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


New Britain


Likuranga


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake

Kawio Barat


Mindanao


False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Mikura Seamount

Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Mongolia


Har-Togoo


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Ecuador


Altar


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge



 Special Announcements


Special Announcement Reports