Report for Etna
INGV reported that during 6-10 February webcams at Etna recorded gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Voragine Crater, and occasional ash clouds from Northeast Crater (NEC); inclement weather prevented observations during 4-5 February. From the beginning of the afternoon on 6 February discrete ash emissions rose from NEC. The ash emissions were continuous from about 2215 on 7 February to 1015 on 8 February, producing relatively diffuse ash plumes that drifted S and then SE. Ash fell in Nicolosi (14 km S) and Pedara (15 km SSE). A diffuse ash plume drifted SW on 9 February.
Report for Kadovar
According to Brad Scott of GeoNet, the Royal New Zealand Air Force released photos of a plume rising from Kadovar at 1640 on 10 February.
Report for Merapi
PVMBG reported that during 1-11 February the volume of the lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater was about the same as the previous week’s estimate of 461,000 cubic meters, and there were no apparent morphological changes. Most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage and the SE flank. On 7 February a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.
Report for Agung
PVMBG reported that a 97-second-long explosive event at Agung began at 0012 on 8 February. A plume was not visible, though webcams recorded crater incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.
Report for Karangetang
On 8 February PVMBG reported that lava from Karangetang’s Kawah Dua (North Crater) continued to advance over 3.5 km down the Malebuhe River drainage on the NW flank into the ocean. Levees had formed at the margins channeling the lava down the middle of the flow. Avalanches from the edges of the flow generated brown and gray plumes. A lava delta was building out into the ocean and generating a dense steam plume. Drone footage acquired on 9 February showed that the flow was about 160 m wide where it crossed a road (about 210 m from the coast) and about 140 m wide at the coast. Seismicity remained high. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and not enter within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW.
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 12 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that during 5-12 February dense white-to-gray plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted E, S, and W. Foggy conditions occasionally prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible during 1-8 February. Were small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Report for Aira
JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible during 4-12 February. At 1919 on 7 February an event generated a plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and ejected material 1.3-1.7 km from the crater. During 8-12 February there were four events, three of which were explosive. Plumes rose as high as 1.9 km, and boulders were ejected as far as 900 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 2-8 February that sent ash plumes to 2.3 km (7,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 4 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that during 2-8 February Sheveluch’s lava dome continued grow, extruding blocks on the N side, and producing hot avalanches and fumarolic plumes. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images daily. Video and satellite data recorded gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rising to 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 105 km E and W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the NE, E, and SE flanks of the lava dome.
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. Multiple lava flows traveled 10-250 m down the NW flank, advancing towards Cerro Chino, and on the E flank. Minor avalanches of material from lava-flow fronts descended the flanks.
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported possible events at Rincón de la Vieja at 1906 and 1950 on 5 February and at 0120 on 6 February. An event at 0000 on 6 February was also recorded; the report noted that poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater.
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic and infrasound data indicated multiple events at Poás during 7-8 February. On 8 February events were centered at vent A (Boca Roja) and produced plumes that rose no higher than 200 m and drifted SW. A sulfur dioxide odor was reported in areas downwind including San Jose de Naranjo, Grecia (16 km SW), Poás, Sarchá, Naranjo, and Atenas (32 km SW). Incandescence in the crater began to be visible at 0151 on 11 February. Passive ash emissions rose 200 m and drifted SW.
Report for Turrialba
OVSICORI-UNA reported that a period of sporadic ash emissions from Turrialba began at 0540 on 8 February and lasted more than one hour. The activity produced ash plumes that rose no more than 200 m above the vent rim. A very small ash emission was visible on 11 February.
Report for Sabancaya
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 26 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 4-10 February. Long-period seismic events were recorded, and hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Although weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations, gas-and-ash plumes were seen rising as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km S and SW. MIROVA detected one thermal anomaly. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Report for Nevados de Chillan
ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 5-12 February growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was very slow (0.003-0.004 cubic meters per second). White water vapor emissions, occasionally grayish from included tephra, rose as high as 1 km and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was recorded by a webcam each day. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.
Report for Copahue
On 6 February OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Copahue to Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale, noting the return of the crater lake and infrequent surficial activity. In addition, data from the geodetic monitoring network showed only slight deformation during the previous three months. ONEMI lowered the Alert Level to Green (the lowest level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.