Activity for the week of 14 September-20 September 2016
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 14 September-20 September 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Piton de la Fournaise||Reunion Island (France)||New|
|White Island||North Island (New Zealand)||New|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) | 12.77°N, 124.05°E | Elevation 1565 m
PHIVOLCS reported that, beginning at 1654 on 16 September, a four-minute-long phreatic explosion at Bulusan generated a dark gray ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Casiguran, Gubat, and Barcelona. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 9-16 September. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the E flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage and also down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. On 10, 13, and 15 September ash plumes rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 50 km NE and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) | 21.244°S, 55.708°E | Elevation 2632 m
OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized during 14-17 September. Field observations on 15 September revealed that the two volcanic cones that had formed on the lower part of the fissures had begun to coalesce. Lava from the northernmost cone flowed N and NE, and by 0900, was active midway between Piton Partage and Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. The height of the lava fountains grew in the afternoon, rising as high as 60 m, likely from activity ceasing at the southernmost cone and focusing at one main cone. On 16 September the main cone continued to build around a 50-m-high lava fountain; lava flows from this vent traveled NE. Tremor rose during the night on 17 September, and then fell sharply at 0418 on 18 September, indicating the end of surficial activity. During 11-18 September the erupted volume was an estimated 7 million m3.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that starting at 0210 on 13 September ash emissions from Turrialba rose 300 m and drifted NNW. A small explosion was detected later that day at 1947. Small explosions were detected at 1804 and 2147 on 15 September. On 16 September small explosions were recorded at 0240, followed by three periods of passive ash emissions. An explosion at 1100 on 16 September generated an ash plume that rose 50 m above the crater and likely drifted S (inclement weather prevented visual observations). Ashfall was reported in the Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, and areas E of San José and Heredia including Ipís de Guadalupe.
A series of gas-and-ash emissions began at 0958 on 17 September with an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater and drifted NW. Plumes the rest of the day did not exceed that height, though an explosion at 2148 generated a plume that rose 500 m. Ash-and-gas emissions were recorded on 18 September; some plumes were observed rising as high as 500 m, although inclement weather hindered most observations. Explosions during four energetic periods on 19 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km. A sulfur odor and ashfall was reported in many communities in the Valle Central including those in San José (35 km WSW), Heredia (38 km W), Alajuela, and Cartago (25 km SW). According to news articles, flights in and out of the Juan Santamaría International Airport were canceled; the airport remained closed at least through the morning of 20 September. The Pavas San José Tobías Bolaños Airport was also temporarily closed. At night during 19-20 September ash emissions rose as high as 500 m and drifted WNW. Ash plumes during the rest of 20 September rose as high as 700 m. Plumes drifted NW and NE.
White Island | North Island (New Zealand) | 37.52°S, 177.18°E | Elevation 321 m
Based on field observations of White Island on 14 September, GeoNet reported that the eruption which had occurred the day before had ceased. An analysis of collected ash deposits revealed no juvenile components. Seismic and acoustic activity remained low, and gas flux had not changed since before the eruption. On 15 September the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 2 and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. Observations during 17-18 September suggested no new sustained ash emissions (web camera images indicated that very minor amounts of ash may have been present in the steam plumes); the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on webcam and satellite images, and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported an ash emission from Colima on 18 September. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 19-20 September.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and, on some days, drifted as far as 250 km NE, E, ESE, and SE.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 14-20 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level fluctuated between 11 and 28 m below the Halema?uma?u floor, and was sometimes visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). A drop in the lake level during 16-17 September caused several collapses of solidified lava that had adhered to the crater walls. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple locations near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast.
Lokon-Empung | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.358°N, 124.792°E | Elevation 1580 m
Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 1-14 September observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 250 m above the crater. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was the highest on 1 September (20 recorded), and then fluctuated between 1 and 4 per day during 2-14 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Based on notices from the Bogota MWO and model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 September an ash plume from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that a strong Vulcanian explosion at 2140 on 17 September generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted 30 km SW. Another large explosion occurred during 17-18 September that also produced a 2.5-km-high ash plume. Five more moderate explosions were also detected. A moderate explosion during the evening of 19 September produced an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos Palajunoj.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 9-16 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Weekly Reports Archive
|Aira||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Miguel|
|Apoyeque||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufrière Hills|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Batur||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Bristol Island||Iliwerung||Negra, Sierra||Stromboli|
|Bulusan||Inielika||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Suwanosejima|
|Cereme||Kanlaon||Nyiragongo||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Cotopaxi||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Tokachidake|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Klyuchevskoy||Ranakah||Turrialba|
|Dukono||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ubinas|
|Epi||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Erta Ale||Kverkfjoll||Ritter Island||Wolf|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamongan||Ruang||Zavodovski|
|Fernandina||Lascar||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sabancaya|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||Salak|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)