Activity for the week of 20 April-26 April 2016
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 20 April-26 April 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||New|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||New|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Langila||New Britian (Papua New Guinea)||New|
|Alaid||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
|Tengger Caldera||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 26 April ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km S, SW, and NW.
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that during 20-26 April no unusual seismicity was detected at Cleveland, and partly to mostly cloudy satellite images captured no activity. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Kerinci | Indonesia | 1.697°S, 101.264°E | Elevation 3800 m
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that Strombolian explosions and gas-and-steam emission continued to be observed at Klyuchevskoy during 15-21 April. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano, and a robust gas-and-steam plume containing ash drifting 55 km NE on 15 April. At 0140 on 25 April a strong explosion generated an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 km) a.s.l. and, by 1428, had drifted over 450 km SW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Langila | New Britian (Papua New Guinea) | 5.525°S, 148.42°E | Elevation 1330 m
Nyiragongo | DR Congo | 1.52°S, 29.25°E | Elevation 3470 m
On 12 April the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma reported that activity at Nyiragongo had declined since 6 April, and that the level of the lava lake had dropped. A report dated 17 April stated that some volcanic earthquakes had been located within 5 km E and 10-15 km N of the crater; continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during 0200-0400 on 17 April. In a photo dated 19 April an incandescent vent atop a spatter cone appears to be in the same location as a lava lake that had been first noted on 1 March.
Source: Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO)
Pavlof | United States | 55.417°N, 161.894°W | Elevation 2493 m
On 22 April AVO stated that seismic activity at Pavlof Volcano had continued to decrease, and no anomalous activity had been detected in satellite images since weakly elevated surface temperatures were seen on 8 April. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.
San Cristobal | Nicaragua | 12.702°N, 87.004°W | Elevation 1745 m
INETER and SINAPRED reported that at 1020 on 22 April an explosion at San Cristóbal produced an ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The seismic network recorded 10 additional explosions by 1200. Ashfall was reported in local areas including Las Brisas (10 km S), San José (8 km SSE), Santa Narcisa, Pellizco Central (12 km SSE), Los Ébanos, Los Lirios (18 km WSW), Santa Cruz (35 km SE), Las Grietas (14 km E), El Liberal, and San Lucas (13 km E). The INETER report noted that the last explosive activity occurred on 6 June 2015, though explosions that day were of lesser magnitudes.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
In a special report from 15 April INSIVUMEH stated that activity at Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, continued at a high level. A loud explosion at 0825 was followed by a pyroclastic flow that descended the SE and W flanks of Caliente cone. Collapses of the E and W edges of the crater generated a mushroom-shaped ash cloud that rose 4 km and then drifted 25 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Monte Bello, Loma Linda, Las Marías, San Marcos (10 km SW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW). Cloud cover obscured views during 16-18 April, though during 17-18 April an ash plume from an explosion rose 700 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in San Marcos Palajunoj. An explosion at 0800 on 19 April generated pyroclastic flows down the SE and W flanks of Caliente cone. Collapses of the E and W edges of the crater generated a mushroom-shaped ash cloud that rose 4.5 km and then drifted 25 km W and SW. Abundant ash fell in the same areas that were affected by the 15 April explosion. Strong explosions continued during 21-22 April, along with pyroclastic flows and block avalanches on the SE flank of the cone.
In another special bulletin from 23 April, INSIVUMEH stated that a very high level of activity continued, and was the highest recorded in the previous two years. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 4-5 km above the cone and drifted 60 km downwind, causing ashfall in the departments of Quetzaltenango, Retalhuleu, and Mazatenango. Abundant amounts of ash fell in communities closer to the volcano including San Marcos, Loma Linda, Palajunoj, Las Marías, El Palmar, and San Felipe Retalhuleu, as well as in the Monte Bello, Monte Claro, El Faro, Patzulin, and La Florida farms. Pyroclastic flows traveled 3 km E and W down the Cabello de Ángel and San Isidro drainages. The report noted that during the previous four days explosions had ejected ballistics 2-3 m in diameter as far as 3 km. On 24 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose 3.3-3.5 km. During 25-26 April a few weak explosions were observed along with avalanches from the E crater rim.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that a small-scale explosion at the Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was detected on 20 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Alaid | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 50.861°N, 155.565°E | Elevation 2285 m
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 15-21 April. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) | 32.884°N, 131.104°E | Elevation 1592 m
JMA reported that field surveys at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater on 20 April confirmed an eruption that had been detected on 16 April. Scientists observed deposits from a phreatic explosion at a vent in the S crater which contains a crater lake. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.525°N, 150.875°E | Elevation 742 m
SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 20 April; gas-and-steam plumes were visible in images on 20 and 23 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam images, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 25 April ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.9-6.7 km (16,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and NW.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-26 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 250 km in multiple directions.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 20-26 April. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded outgassing from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.7 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.
Masaya | Nicaragua | 11.984°N, 86.161°W | Elevation 635 m
INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Based on an SGC notice, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Nevado del Ruiz drifted over 10 km on 22 April and almost 20 km on 24 April. Possible ash emissions rose from the volcano on 25 April. Extensive weather clouds prevented satellite views on all three days.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 15-21 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21, 23-24, and 26 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.5 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-50 km SW, W, and NW.
Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.112°N, 124.737°E | Elevation 1785 m
PVMBG reported that during 1-20 April diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 100 m above the crater and drifted E. The number of volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating avalanches declined. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 21 April; residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km.
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 20-21 April; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW on 20 April.
Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.942°S, 112.95°E | Elevation 2329 m
Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and almost 20 km NW. On 26 April another ash plume rose to the same altitude and drifted W.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Aira||Fujisan||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Aoba||Great Sitkin||Manam||Sarychev Peak|
|Azumayama||Home Reef||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Miyakejima||Sotara|
|Bardarbunga||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Momotombo||Soufrière Hills|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Monowai||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Bezymianny||Iliamna||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||St. Helens|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Jackson Segment||Nightingale Island||Suwanosejima|
|Cereme||Kanaga||Nisyros||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Talang|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Kasatochi||Pacaya||Tangkubanparahu|
|Chirpoi||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Cumbal||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kizimen||Puyehue-Cordon Caulle||Turrialba|
|Epi||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Volcanic Complex||Redoubt||White Island|
|Erta Ale||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||Wolf|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamington||Ritter Island||Zealandia Bank|
|Fonualei||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Leroboleng||Sabancaya|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)