Activity for the week of 15 July-21 July 2015
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 15 July-21 July 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Chirinkotan||Kuril Islands (Russia)||New|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||New|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||New|
|Raung||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 48.98°N, 153.48°E | Elevation 724 m
Based on satellite image observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption at Chirinkotan on 21 July may have produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A subsequent notice stated that ash was observed in images and then dissipated. SVERT reported that on 22 July a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images as well as steam-and-gas emissions. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that at 0817 on 21 July an explosion at Cleveland was detected in both infrasound and seismic data. Cloud cover up to 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. obscured views; no ash above the cloud deck was observed. Observers on a boat at the NE side of Cleveland reported seeing a dusting of ash on the snow near the summit as well as moderate steaming from the summit area. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
The Washington VAAC reported that on 15 July the webcam at Colima recorded no ash emissions; however, incandescent avalanches continued to descend the flanks. According to a news article the lava dome had been excavated during increased activity from 10 to 12 July; on 16 July explosions were less continuous and extrusion of a lava flow on the S flank has decreased. A total of 670 evacuees remained in temporary shelters.
Gamalama | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 0.8°N, 127.33°E | Elevation 1715 m
BNPB reported that a phreatic explosion at Gamalama on 16 July generated a gray-and-white plume that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. The Sultan Babullah International airport in Ternate was closed on 18 July. Several explosions during 18-19 July produced white-and-gray plumes that rose 300-800 m and drifted NW. A preliminary count of refugees showed there were 1,505 people (450 families) displaced by the eruption. Ash deposits were 1.5-6 mm thick in northwestern villages.
Based on pilot reports, ground-based observations, wind data, PVMBG reports, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-20 July ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-5.5 km (7,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-130 km NE, NW, W, and SW.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
According to the Washington VAAC, the Manizales Observatory reported that activity at Nevado del Ruiz increased at 0530 on 18 July, and an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds prevented satellite and webcam views. Later that day the Bogata MWO reported that an ash plume drifted SW at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l., and a NOTAM detailed an ash plume drifting S at the same altitude.
Raung | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.125°S, 114.042°E | Elevation 3332 m
Based on PVMBG information, and satellite-image and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-21 July ash multiple ash plumes from Raung rose to varying altitudes of 3.7-6.1 km (12,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 340 km in multiple directions. On 16 July BNPB reported that a dense gray-to-black ash plume rose as high as 2 km above Raung's crater rim and drifted WNW. Incandescent lava at the summit was visible and tremor was continuous. Roaring and thumping sounds were reported by residents. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Cumedak (19 km W) and Sumberjambe (13 km NW). According to a news article, the Juanda International Airport in Surabaya reopened on 17 July after on-and-off closures the previous week. BNPB noted that the eruption continued on 18 July with ash plumes rising as high as 1.5 km and drifting N. Tremor continued, although the amplitude had declined during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.78°S, 71.85°W | Elevation 5967 m
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported five explosions during 13-21 July from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 500 m, and incandescence from the crater that was occasionally visible. A small-scale eruption occurred from Minami-Dake Crater on 16 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) | 12.77°N, 124.05°E | Elevation 1565 m
PHIVOLCS reported that at 1310 on 17 July an explosion at Bulusan, detected by the seismic network for 11 minutes, generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater and drifted WNW. Ashfall was reported in areas to the N and NE in the Sorsogon Province, including Inlagadian (municipality of Casiguran), Tigkiw, Tugawe, Nazareno, Bugtong, and Rizal (municipality of Gubat), and Fabrica, San Isidro, Sta. Cruz, and San Ramon (municipality of Barcelona). The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-120 km N, NW, W, and SW.
Guallatiri | Chile | 18.42°S, 69.092°W | Elevation 6071 m
On 7 July OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Guallatiri was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) because activity had returned to the baseline levels observed prior to the Alert-Level increase in May. Baseline levels were characterized by low levels of seismicity, no deformation, and white emissions.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that explosive activity at Karymsky likely continued during 3-10 July; a thermal anomaly over the volcano was visible in satellite images on 6 July. Weather clouds obscured views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 15-22 July. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes rose from burning forest at the most distant part of the flow.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
On 21 July KVERT reported that an eruption at Klyuchevskoy ended on 24 March, although activity during 1-10 May was characterized by gas-and steam plumes with minor amounts of ash and a thermal anomaly. Seismicity continued at a high level, and gas-and-steam emissions continued. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 15-21 July the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 18-64 daily emissions consisting of water vapor, gas, and sometimes ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Variable nighttime crater incandescence was observed, and explosions were detected during 17-19 July. Two explosions on 20 July produced ash plumes that rose less than 500 m. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
During 15-21 July IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, tremor, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. On 14 July a steam-and-ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W, and on 16 July an ash plume rose 1.3 km and drifted NW. On 17 July an ash plume rose 700 m, and light gray deposits possibly from a pyroclastic flow were observed. On 20 July explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted NW. The next day a steam-and-ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E. Explosions ejected incandescent material onto the flanks.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 10-17 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the dome during 10-11, 14, and 16 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 15-21 July indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Cloud cover prevented satellite and webcam observations. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images during 19-20 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
During 18-19 July BNPB reported that Sinabung remained active; pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5-3 km E and SE, ash plumes rose as high as 1 km, and lava was active as far as 1.5 km SE. Seismicity was high and the lava dome continued to extrude. A total of 11,111 people (3,150 families) remained displaced. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on satellite images, weather models, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-20 July explosions generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. White plumes rose 200 m on 21 July.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported moderate seismic activity at Tungurahua during 14-21 July, characterized by long-period events, tremor, and a few explosions. Cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Explosions during 14-15 July generated ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted W. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Ashfall overnight during 15-16 July was reported in Choglontus (13 km WSW), Bilbao, and El Manzano (8 km SW). On 17 July vapor-and-ash plumes were observed and ash fell in Choglontus. A lahar descended the Juive (NW) drainage on 18 July.
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.589°N, 159.15°E | Elevation 2899 m
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 10-17 July. A strong explosion on 12 July produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 1,200 km E. Ashfall was reported in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Another explosion on 14 July generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and 60 km S. During an overflight on 16 July, volcanologists observed fresh deposits at the foot of the volcano from collapses of the S section of Priemysh Crater (the active crater) that likely occurred on 12 July. Moderate activity at the crater continued through 19 July; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Alaid||Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Azul, Cerro||Hierro||McDonald Islands||Sinarka|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyakejima||Sotara|
|Bezymianny||Ijen||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Cameroon||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Sumbing|
|Cayambe||Jackson Segment||Nightingale Island||Sundoro|
|Chaiten||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karymsky||Ontakesan||Tandikat-Singgalang|
|Cleveland||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Dabbahu||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kirishimayama||Popocatepetl||Tongkoko|
|Erebus||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Volcanic Complex||Redoubt||West Mata|
|Erta Ale||Kuchinoerabujima||Reventador||White Island|
|Etna||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjoll||Rinjani||Wolf|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)