Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 19 November-25 November 2014


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Fogo Cape Verde New
Pavlof United States New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Sinarka Shiashkotan Island (Russia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Fogo  | Cape Verde  | 14.95°N, 24.35°W  | Elevation 2829 m

According to news articles an eruption from Fogo's Pico cone inside the Cha Caldera began in the morning on 23 November after increased activity detected in the previous weeks and felt earthquakes by residents the night before. The eruption started at a vent on the WSW base of Pico cone, near or at where explosions originated in 1995, and then rose from multiple vents. The activity was characterized by explosions, lava fountains, and ash emissions. About 700 people evacuated from Chã das Caldeiras and the local airport closed. During the afternoon on 24 November workers removed items from the national park headquarters and by the evening lava had overtaken the building. Lava flows had crossed a main road and taken down communication poles. The Toulouse VAAC noted that a cloud observed in satellite images composed mainly of sulfur dioxide drifted over 220 km NW at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash in the cloud was detected at lower altitudes. By 25 November the lava flow was 4 km long.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), BBC News, Boston



Pavlof  | United States  | 55.417°N, 161.894°W  | Elevation 2493 m

AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof decreased during 21-22 November but continued to remain above background levels. Weakly elevated surface temperatures during 22 and 24-25 November, consistent with the cooling lava flow on the NW flank, were observed in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory on 25 November; AVO noted that seismicity was at low levels during the previous week, and satellite observations show no evidence for continuing eruptive activity.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5426 m

CENAPRED reported that during 19-25 November seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor and gas. Incandescence from the crater was visible each night. On 21 November a plume with low ash content rose 700 m above the crater and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Sinarka  | Shiashkotan Island (Russia)  | 48.875°N, 154.175°E  | Elevation 934 m

SVERT reported that satellite images of Sinarka showed steam-and-gas emissions on 19 November. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 17-24 November. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Ongoing Activity


Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 17-21 November. Weak incandescence from the crater was visible during 18-19 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 19 November an explosion produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. An eruption on 23 November generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 25 November an eruption from Asosan produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.63°N, 17.53°W  | Elevation 2009 m

During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasæta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side.

Sources: Icelandic Met Office, Institute of Earth Sciences



Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.525°N, 150.875°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a weak thermal anomaly during 17-18 November. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 19-24 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on a METAR notice and satellite image analyses, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 November an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-25 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-150 km NE, WNW, W, and WSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 19-25 November HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. A satellite image acquired on 22 November showed that active breakouts were focused in two areas: in the upper part of the flow field about 4 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o, and above the ground crack system near an abandoned geothermal well site on Kilauea’s east rift zone. On 24 November slow-moving pahoehoe flows near the well site had advanced and were 5.7 km SW of the transfer station on Apa'a Street.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 18-25 November white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted WSW, WNW, NE, and SE, often downslope. As many as six volcanic earthquakes and one rockfall event were recorded per day. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below baseline levels. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 14-21 November lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A strong explosion at 2217 on 16 November generated a 30 x 10 km ash cloud that drifted 590 km SW. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 18-20 November; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that intermittent volcanic tremor at Shishaldin continued to be detected during 19-23 November. Elevated crater temperatures were detected in satellite images during periods of clear weather; thermal anomalies were reported during 21-22 November. Seismic activity increased sharply on 24 November, suggesting that the eruption had intensified. Strong thermal anomalies near the summit were detected in satellite images. On 25 November seismicity remained elevated and strongly elevated surface temperatures continued to be detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that duirng 19-20 November eruptions from Sinabung produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Continuous dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were also visible. During 22-23 November intermittent pyroclastic flows recorded by the webcam reached the base of the volcano. On 23 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

According to IGP a small 64-second-long explosion at Ubinas, that started at 0741 on 23 November, produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater's base and drifted S and SE. A second explosion occurred at 1004 and generated an ash plume that rose 2.2 km and drifted S. Residents of Ubinas felt a slight rumble at the time of the second explosion.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 14-21 November. Satellite images showed that the volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive


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Chirinkotan Karthala Ontakesan Tanaga
Chirpoi Karymsky Pacaya Tandikat
Cleveland Kasatochi Pagan Tangkubanparahu
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Concepcion Katmai Paluweh Telica
Copahue Kavachi Panarea Tenerife
Cotopaxi Kelimutu Papandayan Tengger Caldera
Cumbal Kelut Parker Three Sisters
Dabbahu Kerinci Pavlof Tinakula
Dalaffilla Ketoi Peuet Sague Tofua
Dempo Kharimkotan Pinatubo Tokachidake
Descabezado Grande Kick 'em Jenny Planchon-Peteroa Tolbachik
Dieng Volcanic Complex Kikai Poas Toliman
Dukono Kilauea Popocatepetl Tongariro
Ebeko Kirishimayama Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Tongkoko
Ebulobo Kizimen Rabaul Tungurahua
Egon Klyuchevskoy Ranakah Turrialba
Ekarma Kolokol Group Raoul Island Ubinas
Epi Koryaksky Rasshua Ulawun
Erebus Krakatau Raung Veniaminof
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Etna Kusatsu-Shiranesan Reventador West Mata
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kverkfjoll Rincon de la Vieja White Island
Eyjafjallajokull Lamington Rinjani Witori
Fernandina Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
Fogo Langila Rotorua Zealandia Bank
Fonualei Lascar Ruang Zhupanovsky
Fournaise, Piton de la Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zubair Group
Fourpeaked Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del
Fuego Lewotobi Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)