Activity for the week of 2 April-8 April 2014
- Volcano Info
- Search Database
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 2 April-8 April 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Copahue||Central Chile-Argentina border||New|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||New|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Shiveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border | 37.856°S, 71.183°W | Elevation 2953 m
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
IG reported that cloud cover occasionally prevented visual observations of Reventador during 2-8 April; activity remained high. A steam-and-ash plume rose 3 km and drifted E on 2 April, and a thermal camera detected hot material on the flanks. Four lava flows on the S and SE flanks were observed on 3 April. Ash emissions were observed the next day. On 5 April sporadic ash emissions rose 1 km and drifted W. On 6 April water vapor emissions with low amounts of ash rose 500 m and drifted NW. During 7-8 April lava flows continued to descend the S and SE flanks. On 8 April vapor emissions with small amounts of ash were observed.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures over Shishaldin's summit area were detected in satellite images during 2-8 April. No activity was detected in the seismic data. The webcam showed a steam plume rising from the crater on 6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that seismicity at Tungurahua steadily increased from 2-4 April. On 2 April two small explosions, at 0757 and 2305, were accompanied by roaring and incandescent blocks rolling down the flanks. The second explosion ejected incandescent blocks and produced an ash plume that rose 600 m. Ashfall was reported in Cotaló (8 km NW) and Chacauco (NW). Although cloud cover often prevented visual observations, an ash plume generated by an explosion at 1455 on 4 April rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW; ash fell in Choglontus (SW). On 4 April an explosion at 1810 lasted five minutes and generated pyroclastic flows that descended the NW and N flanks. An ash plume rose 10 km above the crater and drifted SW. Another explosion at 1816 lasted four minutes and possibly generated pyroclastic flows. Tephra up to 7 cm in diameter fell in Cusúa (8 km NW) and Píllaro. Constant tremor continued, interspersed with explosions. Strombolian activity was observed during the morning of 5 April. Steam-and-gas emissions with small amounts of ash rose less than 1 km and drifted W. At 1040 an ash plume rose 2 km. On 6 April ash plumes drifted W, and Strombolian activity ejected material that was deposited 1.5 km down the flanks. Ashfall was reported on 7 April in Bilbao (W) and Cevallos (23 km NW). On 8 April steam emissions with some ash rose 200 m and drifted SW. Minor ashfall was reported in Bilbao, El Manzano (8 km SW), Juive (7 km NNW), Mocha (25 km WNW), El Manzano. Large lahars descended the Achupashal (NW) and Confesionario drainages (WSW).
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) reported that during 29 March-2 April seismicity at Ubinas increased significantly. The increase began at 1000 on 29 March with energetic tremor (indicating magma ascent and degassing) and small explosions. On 2 April harmonic tremor was detected. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.9-2.2 km above the crater and drifted SE and E. Minor ashfall was reported in Tonohaya (7 km SSE), San Miguel, and Ubinas (6.5 km SSE). Based on webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 3 April gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing ash rose 6.1-7.3 km (20,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated around the crater. IGP-OVA noted that on 4 April there were 23 explosions detected; ash plumes drifted S and SE. During 5-7 April explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km and drifted S and SW. During 7-8 April explosions also ejected incandescent fragments, up to 20 cm in diameter, no more than 1 km away. Ash plumes rose as high as 3 km.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that during 31 March-4 April two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally detected at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that. During 2 and 5-7 April plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E.
Etna | Sicily (Italy) | 37.734°N, 15.004°E | Elevation 3330 m
INGV reported that during the night of 1-2 April emissions of minor lava flows from the NE base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone decreased. Strombolian activity gradually intensified during the evening of 2 April and then decreased the next morning. Some collapses from the E flank of the cone were also observed that morning. Poor weather conditions prevented views of Etna for a few days, but by 7 April the lava flows had ceased and Strombolian activity had sharply declined. No activity was observed on 8 April.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.05°N, 159.45°E | Elevation 1536 m
KVERT reported that volcanologists observed Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky during 28 March-4 April. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1-2.5 km (3,300-8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SW and SE during 27-28 and 31 March, and 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 2-8 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. During an overflight on 7 April geologists observed that the farthest point of activity was 8.2 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.
Paluweh | Indonesia | 8.32°S, 121.708°E | Elevation 875 m
PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during January-5 April activity at Paluweh mainly consisted of white and gray fumarolic plumes rising at most 100 m above the lava dome and drifting W, N, and E. The report stated that the lava dome had not changed between September 2013 and March 2014 observations. Seismicity had decreased in November 2013 and remained low; the number of avalanches had also decreased. On 7 April the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Shiveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 28 March-4 April lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambrym||Garbuna Group||Lopevi||San Cristóbal|
|Arenal||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Santa Ana|
|Avachinsky||Hekla||Mauna Loa||Seulawah Agam|
|Azul, Cerro||Hokkaido-Komagatake||McDonald Islands||Shiveluch|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Metis Shoal||Siple|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Michael||Sirung|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Misti, El||Slamet|
|Callaqui||Iliwerung||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière Hills|
|Cameroon||Imbabura||Mutnovsky||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Inielika||Nabro||Spurr|
|Cereme||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||St. Helens|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Stromboli|
|Chaitén||Kaba||Nightingale Island||Sulu Range|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karangetang [Api Siau]||NW Rota-1||Suwanosejima|
|Chirpoi||Karthala||Nyiragongo||Tair, Jebel at|
|Cotopaxi||Kavachi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Descabezado Grande||Kharimkotan||Pavlof||Three Sisters|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kick 'em Jenny||Peuet Sague||Tinakula|
|Erta Ale||Krakatau||Raoul Island||Turrialba|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjöll||Raung||Ulawun|
|Fonualei||Langila||Rincón de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Láscar||Rinjani||White Island|
|Fourpeaked||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ritter Island||Yasur|
|Galeras||Little Sitkin||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:
Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.
Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.
For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement
RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)