Activity for the week of 6 December-12 December 2017
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Activity for the week of 6 December-12 December 2017
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||New|
|Bogoslof||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||Ongoing|
|Ebeko||Paramushir Island (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Nevados de Chillan||Chile||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Agung | Bali (Indonesia) | 8.343°S, 115.508°E | Elevation 2995 m
Based on BNPB and PVMBG reports, the eruption at Agung continued during 6-12 December, with high seismicity and nighttime crater incandescence often visible. On 8 December at 0759 an event generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim and drifted W. Minor amounts of ash were deposited on the flanks, and lapilli was reported in Temakung. An ash plume rose 3 km at 1457. The number of evacuees on 10 December was 70,079 (spread out in 237 shelters). Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km. Lahars were observed in a drainage originating on the flanks of Agung. An explosion at 0549 on 11 December generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted W and NW. Multiple ash-plume events were observed during 11-12 December, with plumes rising 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions.
Kanlaon | Philippines | 10.412°N, 123.132°E | Elevation 2435 m
PHIVOLCS reported that an approximately 10-minute-long, low-energy phreatic eruption at Kanlaon began at 0947 on 9 December. A plume of voluminous steam and dark ash rose 3-4 km above the summit vent. The event was heard as far away as La Castellana, Negros Occidental. Minor amounts of ash fell in Sitio Guintubdan, and barangays Ara-al, Sag-ang, and Ilihan. The eruption was preceded by the resumption of degassing at the summit crater at 0634, detectable as continuous low-energy tremor during periods when the summit was not visible; degassing was last observed September 2016. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5).
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 5-6 December. Ash plumes rose as high as 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 180 km during 5-8 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.382°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2569 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-12 December Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone ejected material as high as 25 m above the main cone. Lava flows traveled 100 m NW towards Cerro Chino cone, and 75 m SE.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO increased the Aviation Color Code for Shishaldin to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch on 6 December following several weeks of increasing seismicity and pressure waves recorded by infrasound sensors. Continuous infrasound waves were detected for more than 10 hours on instruments located in Sand Point, ~230 km E. Steam emissions visible in satellite and webcam images during 5 and 8-12 December were rising hundreds of feet above the summit crater. The steam emissions were occasionally accompanied by infrasound signals indicating episodes of short-duration energetic gas emissions and/or small explosions.
Villarrica | Chile | 39.42°S, 71.93°W | Elevation 2847 m
On 10 December POVI reported that the surface of the lava lake in Villarrica’s crater was stable at 70 m below the crater rim. Ejected lava from the lake was not evident in images captured during the previous five days, and incandescence and seismicity slowly decreased.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that an explosion at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) occurred at 1845 on 4 December and generated an ash plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim. Very small events occurred at Minamidake Crater during 7 and 9-10 December, and at Showa Crater on 10 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Ambrym | Vanuatu | 16.25°S, 168.12°E | Elevation 1334 m
On 7 December Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) lowered the Alert Level for Ambrym to 2 (on a scale of 0-5), noting that activity had stabilized by the end of November and was characterized by gas-and-steam emissions. Seismicity had also declined. The report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2.7-km radius from Marum Crater.
Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory
Aoba | Vanuatu | 15.4°S, 167.83°E | Elevation 1496 m
Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that observations of Aoba’s Lake Voui on 22 and 29 November confirmed that activity had declined, characterized by less frequent explosions, steam emissions, and decreased seismicity. On 7 December the Alert level was reduced to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and residents and tourists were reminded to stay outside of the Danger Zone defined as a 2-km radius around the active vent in Lake Voui.
Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory
Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) | 53.93°N, 168.03°W | Elevation 150 m
On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017.
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that during 6-12 December no thermal anomalies were visible in mostly clear satellite images, and no activity was detected by seismic or infrasound sensors. AVO noted that lava effusion may have paused or stopped; a satellite image acquired on 26 November showed that the lava dome had the appearance of rubble in the bottom of the shallow crater. On 12 December AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, though an explosion the next day prompted a return to Orange and Watch, respectively. That explosion on 13 December was detected at 0420, and produced an eruption cloud identified in satellite data rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-10 and 12 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.
Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) | 50.686°N, 156.014°E | Elevation 1103 m
Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 2-5 and 7 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk during 1-4 and 7 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that the 12th effusive/explosive eruption at Fuego in 2017 began on 10 December and, based on seismicity, lasted for about 36 hours. Ash plumes from moderate-to-strong explosions rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted 20 km S and SW. Lava flowed as far as 1.5 km W down the Seca (Santa Teresa), SW down the Taniluyá, and SSW down the Ceniza ravines. Ash fell in the communities of La Rochela, San Andrés Osuna, Morelia (9 km SW), and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW). On 12 December there was an average of 10 explosions per hour, generating avalanches in the Ceniza and Taniluyá drainages and ashfall in nearby areas.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite data during 3 and 5-6 December. An ash cloud rose to an altitude of km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km E on 4 December. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 6-12 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.
Lopevi | Vanuatu | 16.507°S, 168.346°E | Elevation 1413 m
On 7 December Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory noted that unrest continued at Lopevi, and the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Photos and satellite images acquired at the end of November confirmed ongoing activity from the vents in the summit crater characterized by gas-and-steam emissions.
Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory
Nevados de Chillan | Chile | 36.863°S, 71.377°W | Elevation 3212 m
POVI reported that observations of Nevados de Chillán's Volcán Arrau dome complex during 7-11 December indicated phreatic explosions, ash emissions, and a new sulfur deposit on the flank. On 11 December Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) reported that explosive activity generated an ash plume to 3 km above the complex. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 3-km radius.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.787°S, 71.857°W | Elevation 5960 m
Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya decreased compared to the previous week; there was an average of 63 explosions recorded per day during 4-10 December. Seismicity was dominated by long-period events, with signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km NE and SW. The MIROVA system detected four thermal anomalies. The sulfur dioxide flux was high, at 1,392 tons per day on 4 December. The report noted that the public should not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 2 and 4-6 December. A strong explosive event on 5 December generated ash plumes that rose as high as 10.5 km (34,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Ash plumes at 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. drifted E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 and 11-12 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.3-4.9 km (14,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, E, SE, and SW.
Yasur | Vanuatu | 19.532°S, 169.447°E | Elevation 361 m
On 7 December the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that, based on seismic data and visual observations, explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.
Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory
Weekly Reports Archive
|Agung||Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||Salak|
|Aira||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Miguel|
|Apoyeque||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Banda Api||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere Hills|
|Bardarbunga||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Brava||Inielika||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Bristol Island||Ioto||Nightingale Island||Sumbing|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kambalny||Nyamuragira||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Copahue||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tokachidake|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kolokol Group||Ranakah||Ubinas|
|Epi||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Erta Ale||Lamington||Ritter Island||Witori|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Langila||Ruang||Yasur|
|Fernandina||Lascar||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zhupanovsky|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sabancaya||Zubair Group|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)