Smithsonian Institution / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report



















 Activity for the week of 17 September-23 September 2014


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bárdarbunga Iceland New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Rabaul New Britian (Papua New Guinea) New
Rincón de la Vieja Costa Rica New
Shiveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Slamet Central Java (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karangetang [Api Siau] Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Bárdarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.63°N, 17.53°W  | Elevation 2009 m

During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September.

Source: Icelandic Met Office



Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 16-17 September the seismic network at Mayon recorded 38 volcanic earthquakes and 277 rockfall events. Bright incandescence from the crater was visible at night, and rolling incandescent rocks in the uppermost part of Bonga Gully indicated that the lava dome was breaching the SE part of the crater. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS recommended enforcement of the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank. On 17 September a news article indicated that almost 24,000 people from villages within an 8-km radius from the crater had been evacuated.

During 17-18 September the network recorded 142 volcanic earthquakes and 251 rockfall events. Although rain clouds prevented visual observations of the crater, white steam plumes drifting SSW were noted. The network recorded 38 volcanic earthquakes and 277 rockfall events during 18-19 September; cloud cover prevented visual observations. During 19-21 September four volcanic earthquakes along with 8-22 rockfall events per day were recorded. White steam plumes drifted ENE and NNE during 20-21 September. During 21-23 September three volcanic earthquakes per day and 13-18 rockfall events per day were recorded; white steam plumes drifted NNE, NE, ENE, and SW.

Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press



Rabaul  | New Britian (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was mostly quiet during 13-19 September. Variable amounts of white vapor and small amounts of diffuse blue vapor rose from the summit crater. A small explosion at 1242 on 18 September produced a light gray ash plume that rose a few hundred meters above the crater and drifted NW.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Rincón de la Vieja  | Costa Rica  | 10.83°N, 85.324°W  | Elevation 1916 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1237 on 17 September a seismic signal indicating a phreatic explosion at Rincón de la Vieja was detected by a station about 5 km S of the volcano. A second phreatic explosion, detected at 2048 and lasting three minutes, was of a larger magnitude and a longer duration that the first explosion. Phreatic explosions were also detected at 1825 on 19 September and at 0304, 0439, and 0634 on 20 September. Residents on the N flank heard the event on 19 September and saw the explosion at 0634 on 20 September. An overflight of the crater lake on 20 September revealed that the temperature of the lake water was about 45 degrees Celsius, an increase from about 30 degrees measured in April.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Shiveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 12-19 September lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. On 14 September a video camera recorded a short-duration explosion which produced an ash plume that rose 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l.; strong gas-and-steam activity was noted afterwards. On 24 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash plumes also drifted E at an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Slamet  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.242°S, 109.208°E  | Elevation 3428 m

PVMBG reported that during 13-16 September white plumes rose 50-200 m above Slamet's crater. An explosion on 17 September produced a dense blackish-gray ash plume that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-500 m high and booming noises were reported. Ash fell in areas as far as 20 km S. Although white plumes mostly rose from the crater the next day, an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted W. During 19-20 September white plumes rose 100 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that 24 explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 16-19 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-23 September plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. During 17-18 and 23 September pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.14°S, 155.195°E  | Elevation 1750 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 September an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 and 18 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km E and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Karangetang [Api Siau]  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.78°N, 125.4°E  | Elevation 1784 m

PVMBG reported that although Karangetang was often covered in fog during 7-14 September, observers occasionally noted white plumes rising at most 150 m from the main crater and Crater II. Incandescence from the lava dome was observed at night. Seismicity remained high and was dominated by shallow earthquakes from lava-dome growth and avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 17-23 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor. Two small lava ponds in the S pit were visible during the earlier part of the week, and small breakout flows near the crater burned adjacent forest.

The NE-trending lava flow had advanced at an average rate of 290 m/day between 15 and 17 September and 190 m/day between 17 and 19 September, and continued to cause localized fires as it spread through the forest. By 22 September the flow extended 16.4 km from the vent (measured in a straight line), placing the active flow front within the NW portion of the Kaohe Homesteads, a vacant forested portion of the subdivision. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

JMA reported that no eruptions occurred from Kuchinoerabujima during 16-19 September. White plumes rose 600 m above the crater. Low-level seismicity continued and tremor was absent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

PVMBG reported that during 8-14 September observers of Lokon-Empung noted white plumes rising 25-100 m above Tompaluan Crater. On 13 September three explosions from Tompaluan Crater, at 0300, 1146, and 1229, produced white plumes that rose at most 500 m above the crater. Seismicity decreased sharply after the13 September events but continued to remain high relative to the levels detected prior to 10 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that vapor plumes with a low ash content rose 1-2 km above Reventador and drifted NW and SW during 17-22 September.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that, although cloud cover sometimes obscured views of Shishaldin during 17-22 September, seismicity indicated that a low-level eruption was possibly continuing. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit were periodically detected in satellite images. Minor steam emissions were recorded by the web cam on 17 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Sinabung were low and stable during 12-20 September. Earthquake signals indicating lava-dome instability were recorded and had increased from 96 to 110 events/day since the 5-11 September period. Seismicity also continued to signify growth of the main lava flow on the flanks; incandescent lava was visible at the top, middle, and front of the lava flow. The length of the lava flow was 2.9 km on 6 September. White and sometimes bluish plumes rose as high as 1 km above the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5 km SE on 15 September and 2 km S on 18 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate-to-high levels during 17-22 September. On 18 September ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted mainly NW. Ashfall was reported in Cusúa (8 km NW), Mocha (25 km W), and Chacauco (NW), and windows vibrated at the Tungurahua Observatory (OVT) in Guadalupe (14 km N). An ash plume rose 2 km and drifted NW on 19 September. At night crater incandescence was noted and windows vibrated. A steam plume rose 2 km and drifted W and NW on 20 September, and ashfall was reported in Runtún (6 km NNE). On 21 September ash plumes rose 2.5 km and drifted NW; ashfall was reported in Manzano (8 km SW), Choglontus (13 km WSW), Bilbao (8 km W), Cusúa, Coltaló, and Motilones. Steam-and-ash plumes rose 2.5 km on 22 September and drifted W to NW. Ash fell in Cevallos, Quero, Mocha, and Tizaleo.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.59°N, 159.147°E  | Elevation 2958 m

KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 September. Volcanologists in Nalychevo Valley observed short-duration explosions on 13 September which generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 220 km SE and S during 13-14 and 16 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive


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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)