Activity for the week of 4 December-10 December 2013
Activity for the week of 4 December-10 December 2013
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Kliuchevskoi||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Shiveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Chirinkotan||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Kizimen||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Kliuchevskoi | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.057°N, 160.638°E | Elevation 4835 m
On 7 December activity at Kliuchevskoi significantly increased, prompting KVERT to raise the Alert Level to Red. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-6 km (18,000-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 212 km NE and over 1,000 km E. According to a news article, a warning to aircraft was issued for the area around the volcano. The next day KVERT lowered the Alert Level to Orange. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.
Shiveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 29 November-6 December a new lava dome extruded onto the NW part of Shiveluch's older lava dome. Moderate ash explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-5 km (13,100-16,400) a.s.l. Lava-dome extrusion was accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.14°S, 155.195°E | Elevation 1750 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 December ash plumes from Bagana drifted 55-65 km W. During 9-10 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km NE and E.
Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 48.98°N, 153.48°E | Elevation 724 m
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.525°N, 150.875°E | Elevation 742 m
Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.488°N, 127.63°E | Elevation 1325 m
PVMBG reported that during 7 June-9 December white-to-gray plumes rose from Ibu’s craters. Observers in Goin (7 km NNW) noted that the lava dome, which had grown taller than the N crater rim in June, continued to grow; incandescent material from the dome filled the river valley in the direction of the Duono Village, about 5 km NW. Seismicity remained relatively stable. On 10 December the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away from the N part.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.05°N, 159.45°E | Elevation 1536 m
KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity at Karymsky was detected during 29 November-6 December. Vulcanian and Strombolian activity was observed during 2-3 December. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 4-10 December HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor. The 7.3-km-long Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, was active with scattered break-out flows and burned the forest N of Pu'u 'O'o; the flow however was most active about 5 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o based on a satellite images from 30 November.
Kizimen | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 55.13°N, 160.32°E | Elevation 2376 m
KVERT reported that weak seismic activity at Kizimen continued during 29 November-6 December. Video showed gas-and-steam activity, and satellite images detected a daily weak thermal anomaly. On 9 December the Alert Level was lowered to Green.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
INSIVUMEH reported increased Strombolian activity at Pacaya on 5 December. A series of explosions at MacKenney Crater generated ash plumes that rose 2.7 km and drifted 3-5 km, and ejected pyroclastic material that was deposited around the cone. During 8-9 December weak explosions were occurring every 5 seconds, with moderate explosions occurring every minute that ejected bombs and lapilli. Diffuse blue gas plumes drifted SE. During 9-10 December blue gas plumes rose 700 m and drifted W. Tephra was ejected 25 m above the crater.
Sakurajima | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-8 December explosions at Sakura-jima generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. JMA reported that six explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 6-9 December. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambrym||Garbuna Group||Machín||San Vicente|
|Aoba||Great Sitkin||Manam||Santa Ana|
|Apoyeque||Grímsvötn||Manda Hararo||Santa María|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Melimoyu||Sinabung|
|Bagana||Hudson, Cerro||Metis Shoal||Sirung|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Michael||Slamet|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyake-jima||Soputan|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Monowai Seamount||Sorikmarapi|
|Bezymianny||Iliamna||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière Hills|
|Bulusan||Iliwerung||Mutnovsky||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Ioto [Iwo-jima]||Negro, Cerro||St. Helens|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Kanaga||Nishino-shima||Sulu Range|
|Chiginagak||Karangetang [Api Siau]||NW Rota-1||Sundoro|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karthala||Nyiragongo||Taal|
|Chirinkotan||Karymsky||Okmok||Tair, Jebel at|
|Dalaffilla||Kharimkotan||Peuet Sague||Tengger Caldera|
|Dempo||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tinakula|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kilauea||Poás||Tokachi|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamington||Rincón de la Vieja||Veniaminof|
|Fernandina||Langila||Ritter Island||West Mata|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruang||Yasur|
|Fuego||Lewotobi||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zhupanovsky|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)