Activity for the week of 9 April-15 April 2014
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Activity for the week of 9 April-15 April 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||New|
|Chirinkotan||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|San Miguel||El Salvador||Ongoing|
|Shiveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Popocatépetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 8-15 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. On 9 April some of the larger emissions were accompanied by crater incandescence. A steam-and-gas plume containing small amounts of ash rose 1-1.1 km above the crater and drifted E. Explosions on 10, 12, and 13 April ejected incandescent material 100 m from the crater; ejecta on 12 April landed on the E flank. Nighttime incandescence was visible during 10-15 April. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
IG reported that activity at Reventador remained high on 9-15 April; numerous explosions were detected each day. Steam-and-ash plumes rose less than 1 km above the crater and drifted W during 9-10 April. Lava flows down the SW flank were reported on 9 and 11 April. Clouds obscured views during 12-15 April.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures over Shishaldin's summit area were detected in satellite images on most days during 9-15 April; cloud cover occasionally prevented observations. Ground-coupled air waves from small explosions detected by the seismic network decreased during 9-10 April. Minor ash deposits were observed several hundred meters down flanks. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that on 9 April incandescent blocks ejected by Strombolian activity at Tungurahua rolled down the flanks as far as 3 km. An ash plume rose 3 km above the crater and drifted SW, W and NW. Minor ashfall was reported in Cahuaji, Choglontus (SW), and El Manzano (8 km SW). On 10 April an emission observed during a break in cloud cover rose 500 m and drifted W. Ash fell in Quero (20 km NW), Santa Anita, Calera, and El Manzano. Later that day a lava flow on the upper W flank, in the Mandur drainage, was estimated to be 2 km long, 100 m wide, and 15 m thick. On 11 April ash plumes drifted NW, and ashfall was reported in Quero and Tisaleo. The next day ash plumes rose 3 km and drifted W. Ejected blocks from Strombolian activity traveled 1 km down the flanks. A special bulletin released by IG on 14 April reported several small to moderate explosions. A significant explosion at 0831 produced an infrasound signal that was 150 decibels 5.5 km away. Unconfirmed reports indicated that windows in Chacauco and Cusúa shattered. The shock wave was also detected in other locations including Ambato and Riobamba. An ash plume rose 5 km. On 15 April plumes with low ash content rose 3 km and drifted W. Ash fell in Runtún and Mocha. A lahar descended the Achupashal drainage, causing a temporary halt to traffic traveling on the Baños- Penipe highway.
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 9-14 April seismicity at Ubinas remained high. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.3-2.2 km above the crater and drifted mostly E, SE, and S. Ashfall was reported in Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Huatagua (14 km SE), Anascapa (11 km SE), Tonohaya (7 km SSE), San Miguel (10 km SE), Sacuaya, Querapi (4 km S), San Juan de Tarucani, Escacha, Ichuña, Yungas, and Chojata. On 13 April a significant explosion occurred that possibly removed the body of recently erupted lava on the crater floor; incandescent tephra was ejected from the crater. On 14 April an explosion ejected incandescent tephra from the crater that was deposited on the W flank.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that during 7-11 April two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected during the night of 10 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 and 12 April plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 10 April.
Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 48.98°N, 153.48°E | Elevation 724 m
SVERT reported that satellite images of Chirinkotan showed gas-and-steam emissions on 9 April drifting more than 50 km SE. Cloud cover obscured views during 10-15 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.525°N, 150.875°E | Elevation 742 m
SVERT reported that on 13 April satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected steam-and-gas emissions. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 9-15 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-13 and 15 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-280 km SE and E.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 April seismic activity at Fuego increased, along with the number and magnitude of explosions. Ash plumes rose 850 m above the crater and drifted 10 km W and SW. Explosions were heard in areas up to 15 km away and shock waves were detected 8 km away. At night incandescent blocks in the Santa Teresa (S), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages were noted. During 10-11 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m and drifted 8-10 km W and SW, and caused structures to vibrate in local towns. In a special report from 11 April INSIVUMEH noted that activity had increased. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 12 km W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Panimaché (8 km SW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Avalanches descended the Trinity drainage. Activity continued during 13-14 April though cloud cover prevented visual observations; explosions generated shock waves, and sounds resembling avalanches on the S and SW flanks were reported. During 14-15 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose 760 m and drifted 10 km W and SW. Shock waves were detected in areas within 10 km and explosions were heard within 15 km. At night incandescent blocks in the Santa Teresa (S), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages were again noted.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.05°N, 159.45°E | Elevation 1536 m
KVERT reported that Vulcanian and Strombolian activity continued at Karymsky during 4-11 April. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes drifted 100 km E on 4 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 9-15 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone (during most of the reporting period). The Kahauale’a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 9 April showed the farthest point of activity was 8.3 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 April an explosion from Pacaya generated an ash plume that rose 50 m and drifted 1 km SSE. During 9-11 and 13-15 April white plumes from Mackenney Crater drifted S and N.
San Cristóbal | Nicaragua | 12.702°N, 87.004°W | Elevation 1745 m
Based on analysis of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 April a gas plume from San Cristóbal that possibly contained small amounts of ash drifted 20 km W. A thermal anomaly was present in short-wave infrared satellite images. Periods of elevated seismicity were also detected.
San Miguel | El Salvador | 13.434°N, 88.269°W | Elevation 2130 m
According to SNET, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that on 12 April moderate to strong gas plumes from San Miguel rose from the crater and drifted SW. The most robust plume occurred at 1607 and rose 400 m. Images recorded by a webcam showed that the plumes had dark tones, suggesting small amounts of ash.
Santa María | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-11 and 14-15 April explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-800 m and drifted 8-10 km. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW), La Florida (5 km S), Rosario, and other areas in Palajunoj (18 km SSW). Avalanches from lava flows descended the flanks during 10-11 and 13-14 April.
Shiveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 4-11 April lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s SE flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambrym||Garbuna Group||Lopevi||San Cristóbal|
|Arenal||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Santa Ana|
|Avachinsky||Hekla||Mauna Loa||Seulawah Agam|
|Azul, Cerro||Hokkaido-Komagatake||McDonald Islands||Shiveluch|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Metis Shoal||Siple|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Michael||Sirung|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Misti, El||Slamet|
|Callaqui||Iliwerung||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière Hills|
|Cameroon||Imbabura||Mutnovsky||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Inielika||Nabro||Spurr|
|Cereme||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||St. Helens|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Stromboli|
|Chaitén||Kaba||Nightingale Island||Sulu Range|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karangetang [Api Siau]||NW Rota-1||Suwanosejima|
|Chirpoi||Karthala||Nyiragongo||Tair, Jebel at|
|Cotopaxi||Kavachi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Descabezado Grande||Kharimkotan||Pavlof||Three Sisters|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kick 'em Jenny||Peuet Sague||Tinakula|
|Erta Ale||Krakatau||Raoul Island||Turrialba|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjöll||Raung||Ulawun|
|Fonualei||Langila||Rincón de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Láscar||Rinjani||White Island|
|Fourpeaked||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ritter Island||Yasur|
|Galeras||Little Sitkin||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)