Activity for the week of 12 October-18 October 2016
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 12 October-18 October 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Ulawun||New Britian (Papua New Guinea)||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) | 32.884°N, 131.104°E | Elevation 1592 m
JMA reported that no further explosions were detected after the 7-8 October eruption at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater; white plumes rose as high as 400 m above the crater rim during 11-17 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) | 12.77°N, 124.05°E | Elevation 1565 m
PHIVOLCS reported that during 12-16 October the seismic network at Bulusan recorded 2-6 volcanic earthquakes per day. During 12-13 October steam plumes rose as high as 500 m above the active vents and drifted SE and SSE. The network recorded 24 volcanic earthquakes from 16 to 17 October. At 0736 on 17 October a 24-minute-long phreatic explosion at the SE vent generated an ash plume that rose 1 km.
PHIVOLCS noted that while the SE vents are within the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) they are part of a fissure that extends 2 km down the upper S flank. Eruptions from this area pose a greater risk to the populated barangays of Mapaso and Patag in Irosin, and San Roque in Bulusan. In response the Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) was increased and as of 18 October stretched an additional 2 km past the PDZ. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on webcam and satellite images, and information from Colima Towers, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 5.2-7 km (17,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-215 km W, NW, N, and NE during 11-18 October.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
Based on satellite image analysis, KVERT reported that during 7-8 October gas, steam, and ash plumes rose from Karymsky and drifted 390 km E and SE. A weak thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano on 7 and 12 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Ulawun | New Britian (Papua New Guinea) | 5.05°S, 151.33°E | Elevation 2334 m
RVO reported that during 1 September-15 October white vapor plumes with varying densities rose from Ulawun, although on 12 October pale gray ash plumes rose from the vent. A report from officers at Hargy Palm Oil dated 13 October stated that a “minor eruption” had occurred after 1800 on 12 October, and that there were a few low noises from the volcano and nighttime glow during 12-13 October. RVO noted that the seismic record did not indicate an eruption.
Seismicity was at a low to moderate level, dominated by small low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. RSAM values increased and by mid-October were at the highest values (peak of 200) so far in 2016. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-17 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W.
Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Yasur | Vanuatu | 19.53°S, 169.442°E | Elevation 361 m
On 15 October the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-4), noting that explosions could become more intense. The Alert Level was lowered back to 2 on 18 October. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.
Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 October an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km SW. During 18-19 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-120 km SW and NW.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, ground observations, a Volcano Notice to Aviation (VONA), and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-18 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 225 km in multiple directions.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 12-18 October HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; on 15 October the lake rose high enough to produce small lobes of lava that flowed E and W on the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 7-14 October. Gas-and-steam emissions with variable amounts of ash rose from the summit crater and from the cinder cone in the Apakhonchich drainage on the E flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano, and ash plumes from explosions that rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 300 km N, NE, E, and SE during 7-12 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 11-17 October seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by a decrease in the number and magnitude of earthquakes compared to the previous week. Gas-and-ash plumes were visible on 12 and 13 October. On 15 October gas, steam, and ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater and drifted NW. The number of long-period events increased during 1800-2300 on 17 October; some of the signals were associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 7-14 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. According to video and satellite data, explosions generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km N, NE, E, and SE during 10 and 12-13 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that tremor levels and ash emissions at Turrialba decreased around 1700 on 11 October. A small eruption occurred at 2132; ashfall was reported in Guadeloupe. Another event was recorded at 1620 on 12 October but weather conditions obscured views of any resulting emissions. On 13 October long-period earthquakes were associated with ash emissions that rose no higher than 500 m above the vent. Tremor amplitude increased around 1029 on 13 October and remained variably elevated at least through 15 October; emissions occurred at around 1029 and 2006 on 13 October, and almost continuously during 14-15 October, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km. Ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported in areas downwind, near the volcano. On 16 October OVSICORI-UNA noted that the almost constant ash emission in the previous few days affected the operation and communication of various scientific instruments installed at the top of the volcano and surrounding areas; communication with two seismic stations located near the summit was lost. Webcams showed continuing ash emissions rising as high as 1 km during 16-18 October.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Akan||Fujisan||Little Sitkin||San Miguel|
|Axial Seamount||Hekla||McDonald Islands||Sinarka|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Momotombo||Sotara|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Monowai||Soufrière Hills|
|Batur||Ibu||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Bezymianny||Ijen||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Bristol Island||Iliwerung||Nabro||St. Helens|
|Calbuco||Ioto||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Jackson Segment||Nisyros||Suretamatai|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Kanlaon||Nyiragongo||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Kasatochi||Pagan||Tangkoko-Duasudara|
|Chirinkotan||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Cumbal||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Tokachidake|
|Descabezado Grande||Kirishimayama||Puyehue-Cordon Caulle||Tongariro|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kizimen||Rabaul||Tungurahua|
|Ebeko||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ubinas|
|Erebus||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamington||Rotorua||Yasur|
|Fogo||Lascar||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fonualei||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sabancaya|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Leroboleng||Sakar|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)