Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 22 October-28 October 2014


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Cerro Negro de Mayasquer Colombia-Ecuador New
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border New
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Popocatepetl Mexico New
Sinabung Indonesia New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ontakesan Honshu (Japan) Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Cerro Negro de Mayasquer  | Colombia-Ecuador  | 0.828°N, 77.964°W  | Elevation 4445 m

Based on reports from Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Pasto (SGC-OVSP), and the Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN), on 26 October Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) stated that seismic activity at Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes continued at a high rate. Since 29 September 2014 about 81,000 earthquakes had been detected with 6,300 of those events occurring on 25 October. The epicenter was 2-3.5 km S of Chiles. Interferometry (INSAR) and a high resolution GPS network both showed localized deformation S of Chiles. The Alert Level remained at Orange (level 3 of 4).

A news article from 23 October noted that 3,500 families had been evacuated from the Chiles, Panam, and Mayasquer communities.

Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Colombia Reports



Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

On 24 October SERNAGEOMIN reported a continuing downward trend of seismicity at Copahue and that emissions had become more diffuse with only minute amounts of tephra in some plumes. A small mud lake had also formed in the crater. SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Yellow and recommended no entry into a restricted area within 3 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained Level Yellow for Alto Biobío (40 km W) in the Biobío region (since 3 June 2013).

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 22-28 October HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. On 22 October a narrow lava flow (less than 50 m wide) that had overtaken the flow front during the previous few days moved into a small gully; the advancement rate was variable and sometimes as high as 300 m/day. Another breakout upslope continued to advance at a slower rate. On 24 October HVO scientists aboard an overflight measured the cross sectional area of the lava tube feeding the flow; the measurement suggested that the volume of lava being supplied to the flow from the Pu'u 'O'o vent had slightly increased.

At approximately 0350 on 25 October lava crossed Apa’a Street and continued to advance towards Pahoa town. Throughout the morning the flow moved down the Pahoa cemetery driveway and then turned SE into adjoining pasture. At 0900 on 26 October the flow was an estimated 140 m wide. The next day it had narrowed to 100 m wide and was about 570 m from Pahoa Village Road. At about 0200 on 28 October the flow had reached the first occupied residential property. The leading edge of the flow was less than 50 m wide but increased to 150 m upslope. At 1730 the lava flow was 310 m in a straight-line distance from Pahoa Village Road and about 900 meters in a straight-line distance from Highway 130. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

According to news articles, Pahoa town, residence to 800-900 people, consists of small shops and homes. A school and a few roads were closed. Crews were building temporary access roads and trying to build berms to divert lava away from the highly traveled Highway 130.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), CBC, CNN



Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 22-28 October white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted SW, WSW, WNW, and NW. A few volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals were recorded during 23-25 and 28 October. Weak crater incandescence from the crater was noted at night on 22, 25, and 27 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5426 m

CENAPRED reported that during 22-28 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and small amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. A small explosion at 0317 on 25 October ejected tephra 100 m onto the S flank. A steam-and-gas plume containing a small amount of ash rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW). An explosion at 0111 on 26 October ejected tephra 200 m onto the N flank. A steam-and-gas plume with diffuse ash rose 1.1 km and drifted NW. On 28 October an ash plume drifted WSW. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on webcam views, wind data models, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 October ash plumes rose from Sinabung. During 23-24 October ash plumes drifted 15-40 km N and SW. A small eruption observed on the webcam on 25 October produced a minor amount of ash that drifted SW; a later ash plume drifted almost 30 km WNW. The next day another eruption generated an ash plume that drifted E. Ash emissions on 27 October were recorded by the webcam. The VAAC noted that PVMBG reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and then dissipated.

On 27 October BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; on 26 October pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and avalanches occurred multiple times. Hot ash clouds rose 2 km. The report stated that 3,284 people from 1,018 families remained in evacuation shelters.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)



Ongoing Activity


Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano were detected during 20-24 October; an explosion on 24 October generated a plume that rose 3.2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 24 October ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. During 25-26 October plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 28 October plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that a period of tremor from a very small eruption at Asosan was recorded late at night on 22 October through early the next morning. The video camera near the crater had ash adhered to it. During a field survey on 24 October volcanologists observed ashfall around Nakadake Crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.63°N, 17.53°W  | Elevation 2009 m

During 22-28 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The eruption was confined to the main vent, Baugur Crater, which had reached 80 m high on 24 October. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued; during an overflight on 24 October volcanologists noted that the depression in the caldera was 40 m. A report on 27 October noted that geothermal heat was increasing, and a cauldron in the SE corner of Bárdarbunga had deepened by 25 m over the previous month, thought to be linked to the caldera subsidence. In addition, the lava field covered 64.6 square kilometers.

Source: Icelandic Met Office



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ontakesan  | Honshu (Japan)  | 35.893°N, 137.48°E  | Elevation 3067 m

JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 22-28 October; white plumes were periodically observed rising 100-300 m above the crater rim and drifting E and SE. Seismicity remained low. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.78°S, 71.85°W  | Elevation 5967 m

IGP reported that during 21-27 October seismic activity at Sababcaya was low, and sporadic white and blue plumes rose as high as 1.2 km. Although a pilot reported an ash plume drifting E on 23 October, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash was not detected in satellite images. The webcam showed gas-and-steam emissions, likely with diffuse ash, dissipating near the summit. On 25 October a pilot reported ash drifting E, but again satellite images did not detected ash.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.756°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3772 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-23 October avalanches originated from the lava-flow front active on the S flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Phreatic explosions occurred at the middle and lower parts of the lava flow. On 24 October a lahar descended the San Isidro (SW) drainage, a tributary of the Tambor River, carrying blocks 1-2 m in diameter. During 25-26 October a dense white plume rose 500 m and drifted SW. The most active part of the lava flow advanced S down the Nima I drainage. Another part had advanced 3 km E and was active in the San José finca. Block avalanches were produced from the lava-flow fronts.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 17-24 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 17, 20, and 22 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that partly cloudy satellite images and mostly cloudy webcam views showed nothing unusual at Shishaldin during 21-24 October. Seismicity increased on 25 October, and was followed by a tremor event and elevated surface temperatures detected at the summit in satellite images. Tephra deposits at the summit were noted in clear webcam images on 26 October, indicating that the event was energetic enough to eject material onto the flank from a depth of several hundred meters within the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 17-24 October. Satellite images were obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)