Activity for the week of 3 February-9 February 2016
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 3 February-9 February 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Copahue||Central Chile-Argentina border||Ongoing|
|Karangetang||Siau Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Tengger Caldera||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that an explosive eruption at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) began at 1856 on 5 February and generated an ash plume that rose 1.3-1.8 km above the crater rim. Lightning was observed in the ash cloud, and incandescent tephra was ejected as far as 1.8 km onto the flanks. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale); it had previously been lowered to 2 on 25 November 2015. During an overflight the next day scientists did not see any significant changes to the crater; a plume obscured views of Minamidake summit crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 100 tons/day, which was the same level measured on 3 February.
Explosions were detected on 8 February. Based on JMA reports and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 8-9 February ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.3 km (5,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that strong explosions at Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, began at 1023 on 7 February and generated rumbling sounds and shock waves detected as far as 25 km away. Pyroclastic flows descended the E and SE flanks. A dense mushroom-shaped ash cloud obscured the E, SW, and S parts of the volcano, and then rose 6 km above the crater. It drifted in multiple directions NW to SW. During 8-9 February white gas plumes rose 300 m above the lava dome and drifted E and SW.
Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.108°N, 124.73°E | Elevation 1784 m
BNPB reported that explosions at Soputan were detected at 1300, 1437, and 2008 on 6 February; observers 10 km away saw dense reddish gray ash plumes rising 3 km above the crater. At 0106, 0204, 0311, and 0320 on 7 February Strombolian activity ejected tephra as high as 1 km above the crater. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the E flank. Thunderous sounds were reported, and dense ash plumes rose 2.5 km and drifted W. Constant tremor was detected. Ashfall was reported in multiple districts including Pasan (5 km SSE), Tombatu (16 km SSW), Belang (17 km SSE), and Ratatotok (20 km S). The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1240 on 5 February passive gas-and-ash emissions rose from Turrialba; foggy conditions prevented estimates of ash-cloud height and drift direction, although the plume likely drifted SW. Residents of La Silvia, 2 km NW, reported a sulfur odor and ashfall. For a period of 15 minutes, starting at 1350 on 6 February, passive gas-and-ash emissions rose about 500 m above West Crater and drifted NW. According to the Washington VAAC the webcam recorded gray emissions on 8 February.
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.589°N, 159.15°E | Elevation 2899 m
KVERT reported that moderate steam-and-gas activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 29 January-5 February. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 30 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam images, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 3-8 February ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.9-6.7 km (16,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-140 km in multiple directions.
Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border | 37.856°S, 71.183°W | Elevation 2953 m
Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3-9 February Copahue generated almost continuous steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash that rose to altitudes of 3-3.6 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 150 km ENE, ESE, SE, and S.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-270 km NW, W, WSW, SW, and S.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-9 February explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose 150-950 m above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km SE, SW and W. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, producing avalanches within the crater and down the Trinidad (S), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), and Santa Teresa (W) drainages. A 1-km-long lava flow was active in the Las Lajas (S) drainage.
Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) | 2.78°N, 125.4°E | Elevation 1784 m
Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that during 27 Janaury-3 February the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white and blue emissions rose as high as 100 m above Main Crater. RSAM values doubled in January due to an increase in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 29 January-5 February. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly, and ash plumes that drifted about 270 km E and SE on 31 January and during 1-2 and 4 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 3-9 February. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the NE rim. On 8 February a small lava flow erupted from the E vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.
Lokon-Empung | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.358°N, 124.792°E | Elevation 1580 m
Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 1 December 2015-4 February 2016 observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 400 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated but decreased overall. No deformation was detected. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 February. Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.
Masaya | Nicaragua | 11.984°N, 86.161°W | Elevation 635 m
INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February volcanic tremor at Masaya was at high levels. On 8 February the lava lake in the vent on the SE part of the Santiago crater floor was partially visible.
Momotombo | Nicaragua | 12.422°N, 86.54°W | Elevation 1297 m
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 2-9 February the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 17-83 daily emissions consisting of water vapor, gas, and ash, and as many as nine explosions per day. Ash plumes during 6-7 February rose 700-800 m above the crater and drifted E. Crater incandescence was noted most nights and increased in intensity with some emissions. Explosions at 1630 and 1709 on 8 February generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 29 January-5 February lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected a daily and intense thermal anomaly over the dome. Ash plumes drifted about 60 km SW on 29 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.942°S, 112.95°E | Elevation 2329 m
Weekly Reports Archive
|Aira||Fujisan||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Aoba||Great Sitkin||Manam||Sarychev Peak|
|Azumayama||Home Reef||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Miyakejima||Sotara|
|Bardarbunga||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Momotombo||Soufrière Hills|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Monowai||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Bezymianny||Iliamna||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||St. Helens|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Jackson Segment||Nightingale Island||Suwanosejima|
|Cereme||Kanaga||Nisyros||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Talang|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Kasatochi||Pacaya||Tara, Batu|
|Chirpoi||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Tenerife|
|Cumbal||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Toliman|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kizimen||Puyehue-Cordon Caulle||Turrialba|
|Epi||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Volcanic Complex||Redoubt||White Island|
|Erta Ale||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||Wolf|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamington||Ritter Island||Zealandia Bank|
|Fonualei||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Leroboleng||Sabancaya|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)