Activity for the week of 15 June-21 June 2016
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 15 June-21 June 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Okataina||North Island (New Zealand)||New|
|San Miguel||El Salvador||New|
|Alaid||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Awu||Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Bristol Island||South Sandwich Islands (UK)||Ongoing|
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kuchinoerabujima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Tengger Caldera||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Bulusan | Luzon (Philippines) | 12.77°N, 124.05°E | Elevation 1565 m
PHIVOLCS reported that a seven-minute-long phreatic explosion at Bulusan began at 1303 on 19 June, and generated a dirty white ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Kanlaon | Philippines | 10.412°N, 123.132°E | Elevation 2435 m
Based on visual observations, PHIVOLCS reported that a series of three eruptive events occurred at Kanlaon on 18 June, beginning at 0919 and lasting 27 minutes. These events were recorded by the seismic monitoring network as consecutive explosion-type earthquakes that lasted 30, 42, and 29 seconds, respectively. The first event, a steam-and-gas explosion, generated a light gray-to-white ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and then later to 3 km. The second event, an ash eruption immediately following the first event, produced a dense black ash plume that rose 500 m. Lastly, a grayish ash plume rose 500 m. Minor ashfall was reported to the W in the barangays of Ara-al, San Miguel, and Yubo in La Carlota City (14 km W), Sag-ang in La Castellana (16 km SW), and Ilijan in Bago City (30 km NW). A diffuse sulfur odor was detected in Ara-al. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).
Okataina | North Island (New Zealand) | 38.12°S, 176.5°E | Elevation 1111 m
GeoNet reported that the Mud Rift feature at Okataina's Waimangu Geothermal area erupted during 17-20 May, the first time since 1989. The Mud Rift geothermal vent formed in 1906 in the Raupo Pond Crater (one of multiple craters which formed in June 1886) and is 36 m long, 5-6 m wide, and 15 m deep. The steam-driven events mostly ejected fine sand and mud, and there was abundant evidence of fluids flooding into the rift, especially at the W end. Nearby vegetation was brown, and there was some evidence of collapse around the edges of the vents.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
On 15 June CONRED reported that activity at Pacaya had increased, characterized by an increase in seismic amplitude, signals indicating explosions, and nighttime crater incandescence; based on INSIVUMEH notices, the activity continued through 23 June.
San Miguel | El Salvador | 13.434°N, 88.269°W | Elevation 2130 m
SNET reported that at 0800 on 15 June seismicity at San Miguel dramatically increased and remained elevated. At 0410 on 18 June a small explosion occurred in the central crater, ejecting tephra onto the flanks near the crater, and causing ashfall in areas to the NW. Voluminous gas emissions were visible drifting SW during 19-20 June, and local residents on the W and SW flanks reported a sulfur odor.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
In a special report posted on 19 June, INSIVUMEH reported that a strong explosion at Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, occurred at 0512 and generated pyroclastic flows and an ash plume that rose 5 km and drifted 40-50 km W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in multiple farms and towns including San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda, Palajunoj (18 km SSW), El Faro (SW flank), Patzulin (SW flank), El Patrocinio, El Palmar (12 km S), San Felipe (15 km SSW), and Las Marías. A loud explosion at 2239 on 20 June generated an ash plume containing lightning that rose 2.5 km. Shock waves were detected in areas within 15 km. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km down the W, S, and E sides of Caliente cone. Abundant gas emissions were visible the next day.
Alaid | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 50.861°N, 155.565°E | Elevation 2285 m
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 10-17 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 9, 11, and 13-14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Awu | Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) | 3.67°N, 125.5°E | Elevation 1320 m
PVMBG reported that the number of earthquakes at Awu had risen significantly on 11 May and remained elevated through 14 May; a downward trend in seismicity became evident on 21 May. Earthquake hypocenters were located at depths between 1 and 2 km. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 14 June; residents and tourists were advised to stay 4 km away from the crater.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Bristol Island | South Sandwich Islands (UK) | 59.017°S, 26.533°W | Elevation 1100 m
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 16 June a diffuse ash plume from Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya was visible in satellite images rising to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. The report noted low confidence in the plume altitude due to weather clouds in the area.
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.525°N, 150.875°E | Elevation 742 m
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 and 18-20 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120 km W, WNW, and NW.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that during 15-21 June the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. A lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank continued to advance and spread SE. Webcams recorded bright incandescence from several skylights along the upper part of the tube system supplying lava to the front part of the flow. An active lava pond in Pu'u 'O'o's W pit was confirmed by observers on 16 June.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 10-17 June. Satellite and video data showed a lava flow continuing to effuse on the SE flank. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the volcano, and an ash plume drifting almost 50 km W on 13 June. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 30.443°N, 130.217°E | Elevation 657 m
On 14 June JMA reported that no activity at Kuchinoerabujima had been detected after a small eruption on 19 June 2015. The report noted that volcanic tremor had not been detected, the temperature of thermal areas had declined, sulfur dioxide gas flux was lower than values detected prior to the May-June 2015 eruption, and volcanic earthquake levels were lower than levels detected in August 2014. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (the highest level on a 1-5 scale) on 14 June, and the public was reminded to stay at least 2 km away from Shindake Crater.
Makian | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 0.32°N, 127.4°E | Elevation 1357 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 January-15 June gas plumes from Makian rose no higher than the crater rim. Seismicity fluctuated but decreased overall. On 16 June the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).
Pavlof | United States | 55.417°N, 161.894°W | Elevation 2493 m
AVO reported that activity at Pavlof had returned to baseline levels following a brief eruptive period in mid May; minor ash emissions were last observed on 16 May. On 17 June AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Green and Volcano Alert Level to Normal.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 10-17 June lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on satellite and webcam images, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E.
Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.942°S, 112.95°E | Elevation 2329 m
Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 June ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 20 km S and SE.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that high-amplitude tremor at Turrialba began at 0145 on 16 June, accompanied by passive ash-and-gas emissions that rose 500 m above the crater. Tremor and emissions ceased at 0715. Emissions of ash and gas were again observed at 0805, for a brief 10-minute period, and at 1557. A vapor plume with minor amounts of ash was visible at 1700. On 19 June tremor began at 0410, along with passive ash-and-gas emissions that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted NW. Tremor significantly decreased at 0825. Tremor signals recorded at 1158 on 20 June indicated ash emissions; the wind direction was NW.
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.589°N, 159.15°E | Elevation 2899 m
KVERT reported that no activity was observed at Zhupanovsky after an explosion on 24 March, and the last thermal anomaly detection in a satellite image was on 1 April. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 16 June.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Akan||Fujisan||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Apoyeque||Great Sitkin||Manam||Sarychev Peak|
|Axial Seamount||Hekla||McDonald Islands||Sinabung|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Metis Shoal||Sirung|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Momotombo||Sorikmarapi|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Monowai||Sotara|
|Batur||Ibu||Montagu Island||Soufrière Hills|
|Bezymianny||Ijen||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Callaqui||Ioto||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Jackson Segment||Nishinoshima||Sundoro|
|Chaiten||Karangetang||Nyiragongo||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Kasatochi||Pacaya||Tandikat-Singgalang|
|Chirpoi||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Cumbal||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tofua|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kizimen||Puyehue-Cordon Caulle||Tongariro|
|Erta Ale||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamington||Ritter Island||Wolf|
|Fonualei||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Leroboleng||Sabancaya|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)