Activity for the week of 26 August-1 September 2015
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 26 August-1 September 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||New|
|Piton de la Fournaise||Reunion Island (France)||New|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||Ongoing|
|Karangetang||Siau Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Lewotobi||Flores Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Manam||Papua New Guinea||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that small-scale explosions from Showa Crater (Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) were detected during 28-29 August. An ash plume rose 800 m above the crater on 29 August. Small explosions occurred at Minamidake Crater on 30 August. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a 5-level scale) on 1 September.
Cotopaxi | Ecuador | 0.677°S, 78.436°W | Elevation 5911 m
According to IG, fieldwork revealed that the volume of material ejected since the onset of the eruption at Cotopaxi was an estimated 56,000 cubic meters on 14 August and 19,500 cubic meters during 15-21 August. Thermal images obtained during overflights on 18 and 26 August revealed a significant increase in the temperatures of emissions (150 degrees Celsius on 26 August) and at different areas in the crater.
Since the onset of continuous tremor on the evening of 22 August there had been very few breaks in ash-and-gas emissions. During 25-31 August ash-and-steam emissions were observed rising at most 2 km above the crater and drifting NW, W, and SW. Based on Washington VAAC reports, IG noted on 26 August that the plume rose as high as 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in a wide area to the WSW, millimeters thick in some areas. During 25-26, 28, and 30-31 August areas reporting ashfall included Manabi (El Carmen, 165 km W), Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas (95 km NW), Pastocalle, Santa Ana, Cerro Azul, Azachul, Leonidas Plaza (40 km N), Bahia de Caraquez (220 WNW), Charapotó (230 W), Pichincha, Rocafuerte (225 WSW), Machachi (25 km NW), Tambillo (33 km NNW), Aloag (28 km NNW), and Chaupi. The mayor of Sigchos, in the Province of Cotopaxi, noted impacts on livestock, crops, and greenhouses. A small lahar descended the W flank on 28 August. Emissions later in the day on 31 August were mostly water vapor and gas, with low amounts of ash.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a webcam recorded crater incandescence at Klyuchevskoy at 0344 on 28 August, indicating the onset of Strombolian activity. Strong gas-and-steam emissions were visible during the previous one or two days. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 25-31 August seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz increased; the network detected a large number of long-period earthquakes, and several episodes of tremor associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Water-vapor-and-gas plumes rose 2 km above the crater and were sometimes tinged gray due to the presence of ash. Volcano-tectonic (VT) events occurred at depths between 0.77 and 6.77 km. The largest VT event was recorded at 0144 on 27 August, was a local M 1.1, and was 2.8 km SW of Arenas Crater at a depth of 4.69 km. Periods of very-high-energy tremor were detected on 31 August. According to a news article, La Nubia airport ceased operations on 31 August due to ash emissions.
Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) | 21.244°S, 55.708°E | Elevation 2632 m
OVPDLF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 26-27 August, causing variations in the height of the lava fountains and emissions. One vent remained active, and lava flows from that vent traveled at least as far as 3.5 km. At daybreak on 28 August a small plume rose 400 m and drifted S; inclement weather prevented views during most of the day. During an overflight the next day, scientists observed two growing cinder cones housing lava lakes and lava fountains. An 'a'a lava flow was active, and a large gas plume rose 3 km.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.78°S, 71.85°W | Elevation 5967 m
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 August a pilot observed an ash plume from Sabancaya rising to an altitude of km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. Satellite images and the webcam showed gas-and-water-vapor plumes with possible diffuse ash coincident with a temporary and small increase in seismicity.
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures in satellite images were periodically detected over Cleveland during 26 August-1 September. A small earthquake swarm was detected near Cleveland starting at 1103 on 29 August. A few, small, local earthquakes were detected during 30 August-1 September, likely a continuation of the swarm. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite images, webcam views, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 27-30 August some of the daily ash emissions from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, WSW, W and NW.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 August-1 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 110 km SE, E NE, N, and NW.
Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) | 2.78°N, 125.4°E | Elevation 1784 m
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 21-28 August. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 21 and 24-25 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that seismicity at Kilauea remained at background levels during 26 August-1 September. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o. On 27 August lava erupted from a vent on the NE side of the crater floor and slowly spread out; the flow was active until about midnight. A large breakout also occurred on the NE flank from a lava tube supplying distant flows; lava traveled 580 m before stopping. On 29 August a very small and short-lived flow emerged from a vent on the SE portion of the crater floor. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active in three areas with surface flows within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater; smoke plumes from burning vegetation marked the most distal flows.
Lewotobi | Flores Island (Indonesia) | 8.542°S, 122.775°E | Elevation 1703 m
PVMBG reported that white plumes were observed rising 15 m above Lewotobi during periods of clear weather from 17 July to 25 August. Seismicity decreased significantly during 1-25 August. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).
Lokon-Empung | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.358°N, 124.792°E | Elevation 1580 m
Manam | Papua New Guinea | 4.08°S, 145.037°E | Elevation 1807 m
Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 and 31 August ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NW, N, and NE.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
CONRED reported that tremor at Pacaya which began on 16 June continued to be elevated at least through 18 August. INSIVUMEH reported that white-and-blue gas plumes were accompanied by a small gas emission on 1 September; the plume drifted W.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 21-28 August lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected an almost daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels during 26 August-1 September, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater continued. Cloud cover often prevented satellite and webcam observations; elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Weekly Reports Archive
|Alaid||Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Azul, Cerro||Hierro||McDonald Islands||Sinarka|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyakejima||Sotara|
|Bezymianny||Ijen||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Cameroon||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Sumbing|
|Cayambe||Jackson Segment||Nightingale Island||Sundoro|
|Chaiten||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karymsky||Ontakesan||Tandikat-Singgalang|
|Cleveland||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Dabbahu||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kirishimayama||Popocatepetl||Tongkoko|
|Erebus||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Volcanic Complex||Redoubt||West Mata|
|Erta Ale||Kuchinoerabujima||Reventador||White Island|
|Etna||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjoll||Rinjani||Wolf|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)