Activity for the week of 13 July-19 July 2016
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Activity for the week of 13 July-19 July 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||New|
|Manam||Papua New Guinea||New|
|Alaid||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Bristol Island||South Sandwich Islands (UK)||Ongoing|
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
|Tengger Caldera||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that during 13-19 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain. By midday on 15 July the lava flow was about 870 m from the ocean, advancing only 60 m since 12 July. A satellite image acquired on 17 July showed that the flow front was 820 m from the ocean. By the evening of 18 July the flow tip had stalled but breakouts were active a few hundred meters upslope.
Manam | Papua New Guinea | 4.08°S, 145.037°E | Elevation 1807 m
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
Alaid | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 50.861°N, 155.565°E | Elevation 2285 m
KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at a new cinder cone in Alaid's summit crater was detected during 8-15 July, with lava flowing down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly at the volcano during 7 and 11-13 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 July ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km W and NW.
Bristol Island | South Sandwich Islands (UK) | 59.017°S, 26.533°W | Elevation 1100 m
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 19 July a diffuse ash plume from Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya was visible in satellite images drifting 30 km NE. A persistent thermal anomaly was also identified in satellite data.
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.525°N, 150.875°E | Elevation 742 m
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 17 July an ash emission from Colima rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted just over 10 km NW, and quickly dissipated. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, information from PVMBG, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 225 km NW, W, and SW.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that on 15 July activity at Fuego increased, characterized by eight explosions per hour detected by the seismic network and ash plumes that rose 1.1 km above the crater. Ash fell on the W and SW flanks. During 17-19 July there were 3-6 explosions per hour detected. Ash plumes rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted at least 12 km W and SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Yepocapa (8 km N), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW). Some explosions generated shock waves that rattled nearby homes and sounds resembling jet engines were heard every 3-8 minutes. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high, and avalanches reached vegetated areas.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 8-15 July. Volcanic bombs were ejected 200-300 m above the summit crater and 50 m above a cinder cone, and landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly at the volcano, and ash plumes drifting 170 km NE during 11-12 July. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 12-18 July seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz slightly increased as compared to levels the week before. Several episodes of “drumbeat” earthquakes were recorded during 13, 15, and 16-17 July. These signals were low energy and indicated a growing lava dome. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose at most 500 m above the crater rim and drifted NW on 13, 14, 16, and 17 July. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Pavlof | United States | 55.417°N, 161.894°W | Elevation 2493 m
AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof remained elevated during 13-19 July. A steam plume was visible in satellite images and reported by observers in Sand Point (90 km E) on 18 July. The next day persistent steam plumes with occasional minor ash-producing explosions were observed in satellite views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.
Sangay | Ecuador | 2.005°S, 78.341°W | Elevation 5286 m
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that at 1330 on 15 July an explosion at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated an ash plume that rose 2.4 km and drifted NW. Gas plumes rose from the complex during 17-18 July. At 0235 on 19 July an explosion generated avalanches and a pyroclastic flow that traveled SE down Caliente dome. An ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 8-15 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 and 19 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW.
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Based on JMA notices, satellite-image analyses and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-19 July ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.
Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.942°S, 112.95°E | Elevation 2329 m
Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-16 and 19 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.3 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW, SW, and SE. BNPB reported that the Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport in Malang (26 km W) closed again due to ash, from 2307 on 15 July to 0900 on 16 July; six flights were diverted and two were cancelled. Minor amounts of ash fell in the communities of Probolinggo (35 km NE) and Lumajang (36 km SW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ahyi||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Miguel|
|Aoba||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Arenal||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Azul, Cerro||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Azumayama||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufrière Hills|
|Bardarbunga||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Spurr|
|Bristol Island||Iliwerung||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Taal|
|Cayambe||Kanaga||Nyamuragira||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Cotopaxi||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Klyuchevskoy||Ranakah||Ubinas|
|Dukono||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ulawun|
|Epi||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Erta Ale||Kverkfjoll||Ritter Island||Yasur|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamongan||Ruang||Zealandia Bank|
|Fernandina||Lascar||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sabancaya|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||Salak|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)