Activity for the week of 3 September-9 September 2014
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 3 September-9 September 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Barren Island||Andaman Islands (India)||New|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||New|
|Manam||Papua New Guinea||New|
|Rabaul||New Britian (Papua New Guinea)||New|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||New|
|Bezymianny||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kuchinoerabujima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Shiveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) | 32.884°N, 131.104°E | Elevation 1592 m
JMA reported that Alert Level 2 at Asosan continued during 1-8 September. A small eruption occurred on 1 September from Nakadake crater, generating an off-white plume that suggested a small amount of ash; the plume rose 1,200 m above the crater. Incandescence from the crater was detected with a camera on 2 September. Volcanic earthquakes (48-92 per day) and tremor (429-500 per day) was detected during 1-4 September.
On 6 September a small eruption occurred from Nakadake crater that generated a plume 600 m above the rim. Elevated SO2 (1,200 tons/day) was detected during a field survey (the previous measurement on 21 August was 1,000 tons/day). Volcano-tectonic earthquakes (55-129 per day) and tremor (401-463 per day) was detected during 5-7 September.
Tokyo VAAC issued advisories based on JMA reports of eruptions on 1 and 6 September, though no volcanic ash was visible in satellite images.
Bárdarbunga | Iceland | 64.63°N, 17.53°W | Elevation 2009 m
During 3-9 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing lava effusion, high gas emissions, and elevated seismicity from Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun lava field. On 3 September, the lava flow continued advancing ENE and covered 7.2 km2. Field observations determined that ash production was almost negligible. Radar images provided measurements of a 0.5-1 km wide depression that had formed within the Dyngjujökull glacier (located ~2 km S of the eruption site).
On 4 September there was no decline in effusive activity and the lava field had an aerial extent of 10.8 km2. There were no obvious changes on the Dyngjujökull glacier.
Two new eruptive fissures were observed south of the main eruption site on 5 September. These sites were less effusive and were located ~2 km away from the Dyngjujökull glacier. The eruption also continued from the original fissure and generated a ~460 m high steam plume. During a surveillance flight, the depression within Dyngjujökull glacier appeared to have grown deeper. On 6 September large changes were observed from the overlying glacier of Bárdarbunga (Vatnajökull glacier); a large area subsided that corresponded to deformation of the caldera floor. There were no signs of an eruption from the caldera. Two depressions were noted on the Dyngjujökull glacier, suggesting that small, short sub-glacial eruptions may have occurred.
The fissure eruption continued during 6-7 September and lava effusion was 100-200 m3/s on 7 September. Activity from the S fissures was less than that of the N fissure which had been active since the beginning of the eruption. The advancing lava flow reached the W main branch of the Jökulsá á Fjöllum river. No explosive activity due to lava and river water interaction was observed, but steam rose from the area.
During 8-9 September activity was no longer detected from the southernmost fissure. Lava continued to advance and interact with the Jökulsá á Fjöllum river. The extent of the lava flow reached 19 km2 and gas emissions remained high.
The London VAAC reported no ash plumes associated with the fissure eruptions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) | 12.278°N, 93.858°E | Elevation 354 m
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 3-9 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining 50-60 m below the Overlook Crater rim. Elevated gas emissions were detected on 2 September, 3,300-6,700 tonnes per day, and persisted through this reporting period. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have fallen several kilometers away.
During 3-9 September little change was recorded from Pu`u `O`o; glow was visible overnight above several outgassing openings in the crater floor. On 3 September HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level from Watch to Warning due to the advancement of the June 27th lava flow. By that afternoon the NE trending lava flow had reached ~13.2 km from the vent, placing the active flow front 1.3 km from the E boundary of the Wao Kele o Puna Forest Reserve. The lava flow continued to generate smoke and localized fires as it spread through the forest, and as of 9 September had advanced ~800 m.
Kusatsu-Shiranesan | Honshu (Japan) | 36.618°N, 138.528°E | Elevation 2165 m
During 29 August-5 September JMA maintained Alert Level 2 for Kusatsu-Shiranesan due to continued unrest. GPS measurements indicated inflation, although thermal anomalies had been absent since July. Volcanic earthquakes continued at a low level (0-5 per day) and tremor has not been detected.
Manam | Papua New Guinea | 4.08°S, 145.037°E | Elevation 1807 m
Rabaul | New Britian (Papua New Guinea) | 4.271°S, 152.203°E | Elevation 688 m
During 31 August-5 September, Rabaul caldera’s Tavurvur cone remained quiet and no nighttime incandescence was observed. Variable amounts of white vapor were visible rising from the summit as well as traces of blue vapor. A few short-duration rumbling noises were heard during 30-31 August, and seismicity remained very high and dominated by small, low-frequency earthquakes. However, earthquakes decreased from 80 events per hour to 15 events per hour at 0300 on 31 August. Less than 10 earthquakes were detected during 1-2 September; a slight increase in low-frequency earthquakes was detected during 4-5 September.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Tokyo VAAC released ash advisories for Suwanosejima during 3-4 and 9 September based on JMA reports. Ash drifted NE and N at 1,800-5,500 m (6,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 3 September. On 4 September, an ash plume at 5,500 m (18,000 ft) a.s.l. was observed. JMA also reported a 2,100 m (7,000 ft) a.s.l. ash plume on 9 September at 2233.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
During 1-9 September JMA maintained Alert Level 3 for Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano. There were 23 explosions were recorded from Showa crater from 1 to 4 September; during 5-7 September there were 18 explosions.
During 3-7 September JMA reported ash eruptions, causing the Tokyo VAAC to issue regular advisories; however, ash was not visible in satellite images. At 0437 on 9 September, ash was visible in satellite images and reached 3,300 m (11,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting S. On 2 and 3 September, ballistics reached 1,300-1,800 m above the crater. Nighttime incandescence was detected during 4-5 September from Showa crater. Volcanic earthquakes and tremor were detected during 1-8 September.
Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 55.978°N, 160.587°E | Elevation 2882 m
KVERT maintained Alert Level Yellow during the week of 5 September for Bezymianny. Weak seismic activity continued, and according to video data, moderate gas and steam activity frequently occurred, although the volcano was obscured by clouds. Satellite data showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano during this reporting period.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
On 2 September INSIVUMEH seismically detected a lahar flowing through Fuego’s Taniluyá drainage (SW flank). Observations determined a width of 75 m and height of 2.5 m. The flow cut the road between Santa Lucia Cotzulmaguapa and the communities of Morelia, Santa Sofía, and Panimaché I and II. Lahars were also detected within Río Ceniza (SSW) and Santa Teresa (W).
During 3-9 September INSIVUMEH reported that white fumarolic plumes rose 300-600 m above Fuego’s summit. Weak-to-moderate ash explosions occurred each day and generated plumes 500-800 m high; ash plumes drifted up to 15 km away with prevailing winds. Moderate rumbling was heard and shockwaves caused roofs to shake on some houses near the volcano. On 3 and 5-9 September incandescent plumes were observed 75-150 m above the crater. Weak avalanches were channeled into the drainages of Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Honda during 9 September.
During 3-4 and 6-9 September fine gray ash from explosions fell over the areas of Yepocapa (8 km WNW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (10 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), Porvenir (8 km ENE), and others.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.05°N, 159.45°E | Elevation 1536 m
KVERT reported that moderate-to-weak seismic activity continued at Karymsky and maintained Yellow Alert during the week of 5 September. On 3 September satellite data showed an ash plume at 4,000 m (13,100 ft) a.s.l. that extended about 9 km WSW. The volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days of week.
Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 30.443°N, 130.217°E | Elevation 657 m
During 1-8 September, JMA reported that Alert Level 3 conditions persisted at Kuchinoerabujima, but no eruptive activity was observed. Seismicity increased during 3-5 September; tremor was occasionally detected. Based on webcamera images, white plumes were visible rising 400 m from the crater during 1-5 September and to 200 m during 5-8 September. Tremor was not detected during 5-8 September and JMA noted that poor weather conditions due to a typhoon were affecting the seismic network.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
During 3-9 September INSIVUMEH reported that a weak fumarolic plume was frequently visible rising to 50 m above the summit. The plume tended to drift 400-500 m E and SW. On 4 September, B-type earthquakes were detected associated with gas emissions.
Poás | Costa Rica | 10.2°N, 84.233°W | Elevation 2708 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that three consecutive phreatic eruptions occurred within the crater lake of Poás on 27 August, each within 2 minutes of the previous one. One explosion generated a plume up to 200 m above the surface of the lake. Based on seismic energy released, this event was similar to the eruption on 1 June, one of the largest of the year which partially destroyed a gas-measuring station.
OVSICORI-UNA noted that phreatic eruptions from Poás tended to occur impulsively, have short durations (within 5-10 seconds), and frequently lack precursory activity.
Popocatépetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
During 3-9 September CENAPRED maintained Alert Level Yellow Phase 2 for Popocatepetl. Nighttime incandescence from the crater was visible during this time period. Low-intensity exhalations were observed during 24-hour periods with consecutive daily counts: 15, 1, 5, 17, 30, 12 and 22. On 4 and 5 September, three and four VT earthquakes were detected, respectively, with an average magnitude 1.7. Small pulses of steam and gas drifted WSW during the mornings of 5 and 6 September.
On 7 September, steam and gas emissions were accompanied by 15 minutes of harmonic tremor. At 0315 incandescent tephra was ejected. An ash plume was observed reaching 1 km above the summit and drifting WNW.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
During 3-9 September IG reported moderate activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador. While cloud cover frequently limited observations, on 5-8 September steam emissions were observed with small quantities of ash. In the morning of 5 September an explosion generated a plume and ejected blocks from the crater that fell ~500 m below the summit on the W flank. A thermal camera detected an explosion on the following day that also included ballistics. Rumbling sounds were heard in the morning of 7 September, and that evening a 1 km plume was observed. The following morning a vapor plume persisted from the summit, and in the afternoon it contained a small amount of ash.
The MODIS sensor onboard the Terra satellite detected thermal anomalies from the region of Reventador’s summit during 4-6 September.
Santa María | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
During 3-9 September INSIVUMEH reported white fumarolic plumes rising 200-300 m above Santa Maria’s active cone, Santiaguito. The active lava flow on the E flank continued to generate ash plumes and incandescence. On 4 September fine ash dispersed W over the area of Palajunoj (18 km SSW). On 6 September INSIVUMEH observed the lava flow advancing within the Nima 1 drainage.
INSIVUMEH reported that a strong lahar was detected by the seismic network and observed within Río Nima 1 on 7 September. Fines and blocks (up to 40 m) were mobilized, and moderate vibrations could be felt from the ground as it passed the observatory. Sulfur odors were also noticed.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that low-level seismicity and eruptive activity continued from Shishaldin during 3-7 September. When weather conditions were favorable, satellite images detected elevated surface temperatures. Observations were restricted on 8-9 September due to cloudy conditions.
Shiveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that the explosive and effusive eruption of Sheveluch continued and maintained Alert Level Orange during the week of 5 September. Activity was dominated by lava dome growth on the SE flank, moderate ash explosions, fumarolic activity, and hot avalanches. Satellite data showed a persistent thermal anomaly from the dome region.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
During 3-9 September IG reported moderate-to-high activity from Tungurahua. Explosions were observed most days during clear conditions, but also heard during episodes of rumbling during 4-6 September.
On 3 September gray and black ashfall was reported in the areas of Manzano (8 km SW), Choglontus (13 km WSW), Tisaleo (29 km NW), Quero Alto (20 km NW), and Quinchicoto. In the afternoon a pyroclastic flow descended 500 m from the crater and explosions were detected during 1700-1900. Ashfall was also noted on 5 September in the towns of Manzano and Palitahua (6 km SSW). At 1210 an ash plume reached 1,500 m above the crater and drifted both W and E.
In the morning of 6 September an incandescent plume was observed rising from the summit. Ash drifted W and later SW, and 0.5 mm of black ash accumulated in the areas of Penipe (15 km SW), Puela (8 km SW), Pillate (8 km W), Galán (WNW), and to the S of Quero (20 km NW). The following day ashfall was reported in Palitagua (SW), Manzano, and Bilbao (8 km W).
The MODIS sensor onboard the Aqua satellite detected a thermal anomaly from the region of Tungurahua’s summit on 7 September.
On 8 September cloudy conditions persisted, but in the afternoon an ash plume was visible drifting NW; ashfall was reported from Cevallos (23 km NW), Quero, Mocha (25 km W), Pillate, and Tisaleo. Black ashfall was reported in the area of Pillate on the following day.
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
During 3-9 September IGP reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. During 3-4 and 9 September, steam plumes from fumaroles occasionally rose from the summit. Seismicity was generally low but dominated by tremor. Two exhalations of ash were observed on 5 September, the first at 0858 generated an ash plume up to 1,000 m above the summit which dispersed S. The second plume occurred at 1327 and dispersed ash 500 m above the summit that dispersed N.
A total of five explosions were detected on 8 September, the strongest occurred at 0850 and produced a 1,200 m plume; the second explosion expelled ash to heights between 1,300 and 1,900 m; ashfall was noted in areas S.
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported Aviation Color Code Orange on 8 and 9 September when visible images revealed a narrow plume of steam and ash drifting SE. By 0400 on 9 September, the emissions contained water vapor, gas, and light ash, and reached an altitude of 7,300 m (24,000 ft) a.s.l..
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.59°N, 159.147°E | Elevation 2958 m
According to KVERT, the moderate explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky continued and Alert Level Orange was maintained through 8 September. On 1 September visual data detected an ash plume to an altitude of 3,500 m (11,500 ft) a.s.l. drifting NW of the volcano. Satellite data showed ash plumes at 3,500-4,000 m (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. that extended about 85 km in various directions on 28 and 30 August and 1-4 September. Persistent thermal anomalies were detected from the summit area based on satellite images.
KVERT reported three ash plumes drifting SW on 7 September. The plumes were 10 km, 38 km, and 72 km long at 2,500-3,000 m (8,200-9,840 ft) a.s.l. On 8 September, satellite images revealed an ash plume extending 52 km SW from the volcano.
According to the Tokyo VAAC, ash plumes and possible ash plumes were detected by satellite images during 29 August-9 September with the exception of 5 and 6 September. Plume heights were 2,700-11,600 m (9,000-38,000 ft) a.s.l..
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambang||Garbuna Group||Machín||Sangeang Api|
|Aoba||Grímsvötn||Manda Hararo||Sarychev Peak|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Merapi||Sirung|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyakejima||Sotará|
|Bárdarbunga||Ibu||Monowai Seamount||Soufrière Hills|
|Barren Island||Ijen||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Callaqui||Inielika||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Izu-Torishima||Nightingale Island||Sundoro|
|Chaitén||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chiginagak||Karangetang [Api Siau]||Nyamuragira||Talang|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karthala||Okmok||Tanaga|
|Cleveland||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Dempo||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchón-Peteroa||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kilauea||Popocatépetl||Tongariro|
|Egon||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ubinas|
|Erta Ale||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Reventador||West Mata|
|Etna||Kverkfjöll||Rincón de la Vieja||White Island|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamington||Rinjani||Witori|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruapehu||Zubair Group|
|Fourpeaked||Leroboleng||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)