Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 8 October-14 October 2014


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Ontakesan Honshu (Japan) New
Poas Costa Rica New
Sinabung Indonesia New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that two explosions from Copahue’s El Agrio Crater occurred at 0752 and 1349 on 11 October, and generated dark gray ash plumes that rose at most 3.6 km above the crater. Some minor explosions were detected after the second explosion. Incandescence in the vicinity of the crater was observed at night. The Alert Level was raised to Orange. Cameras near the volcano recorded dark gray ash plumes rising to a maximum height of 1.9 km and drifting 35 km NE on 12 October, 2.2 km and drifting E on 13 October, and 0.4 km and drifting E on 14 October. Minor explosions continued to be detected.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 8-12 October white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted NW, NE, ESE, SE, and SSW. During an overflight of Mayon on 12 October volcanologists observed a 350-m-long lava flow traveling down the SE flank, on the E side of Bonga Gully. The report noted that the small number of volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals recorded during the previous few days indicated slow lava extrusion from the crater and a slow-moving lava flow. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Ontakesan  | Honshu (Japan)  | 35.893°N, 137.48°E  | Elevation 3067 m

JMA reported that during 8-9 October ash emissions from Ontakesan continued. The plume turned white on 10 October, but during 10-14 October the emissions may have contained small amounts of ash. Tremor was below detection limits during 8-14 October. A news article from 12 October noted that the number of people killed in the 27 September eruption had reached 56; seven more were still missing. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), The Japan Times



Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong phreatic eruption from the hot lake at Poás was recorded at 1745 on 8 October. The event lasted one minute and ejected material over 250 m above the crater lake’s surface. The seismic record indicated that it was the most energetic event so far in 2014.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption from Sinabung, observed in the webcam at 1248 on 8 October, generated a pyroclastic flow. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. (based on webcam views and wind models) and drifted E. Eruptions recorded at 0636 and 1107 on 9 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, based on webcam views and wind models. On 10 October satellite images and the webcam detected an ash plume drifting 55 km NE. An ash plume drifting SW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was recorded by the webcam on 11 October. On 14 October an ash plume was again recorded by the webcam and rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that six explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 6-10 October. Incandescence from Showa Crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 9-10 October plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.63°N, 17.53°W  | Elevation 2009 m

During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.

Source: Icelandic Met Office



Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.525°N, 150.875°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly on 6, 9, and 12 October. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 7-13 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 and 14 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-95 km NNE and ENE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 11-12 October explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 1,650-1,950 m above the crater and drifted 10-12 km WSW. Explosions ejected incandescent tephra 150 m above the crater and generated shock waves that rattled structures within a 13-km radius. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), San Pedro, and Yepocapa (8 km NW). During 12-14 October explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m above the crater and drifted 7-12 km S and SW. Incandescent pulses rose 100-150 m above the crater. During 13-14 explosions rattled structures in Morelia, Panimache, and Sangre de Cristo, and incandescent blocks from the crater were observed at night.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 8-14 October HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

The 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to advance. Volcanologists aboard an overflight on 13 October noted that the flow had advanced about 220 m since 10 October, with an average travel rate of approximately 75 m/day since 6 October. The leading edge of the flow was 1.4 km upslope from Apa’a Street. Vegetation along the flow margins was burning. An overflight on 14 October revealed that the flow had advanced an additional 40 m. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5426 m

CENAPRED reported that during 7-13 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 9-10 October. Cloud cover often prevented visual observations, although steam-and-gas plumes were observed daily. During 7-8 October ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted W. Ashfall was reported in Cuautla (43 km SW), Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Huaquechula (30 km SSW), and Morelos (60 km SW). On 9 October ash plumes rose 800 m and drifted NW. Gas-and-ash plumes on 10 October rose 1.4 km and drifted NW. On 12 October ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in Paso de Cortés (8 km NNW) and Tlalmanalco (30 km NW). The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.756°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3772 m

Although cloud cover prevented visual observations of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, during 11-12 October INSIVUMEH reported that the lava-flow front remained active. During 12-13 October avalanches from the flow fronts descended the E flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 3-10 October lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 3 and 8-9 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that, although cloud cover often obscured views of Shishaldin during 8-14 October, seismicity indicated a low-level eruption was likely continuing. Strongly elevated surface temperatures at the summit were periodically detected in cloud-free satellite images during 10-11 and 13-14 October. Tremor and ground-coupled airwaves from small explosions were occasionally detected in seismic data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

Based on SIGMET notices, the Toulouse VAAC reported that ash from Stromboli was detected below an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 8-10 October however ash was not detected in good satellite views.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

IGP and INGEMMET reported that the Alert Level for Ubinas was lowered to Yellow on 10 October; seismicity, the number of explosions, and sulfur dioxide output had all declined. The report noted that sporadic ash emissions as well as explosions were expected to continue.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)



Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 3-10 October. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 3 and 9 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive


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Cleveland Kasatochi Pacaya Tandikat
Colima Katla Pagan Tangkubanparahu
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Copahue Kavachi Paluweh Telica
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Dabbahu Kerinci Parker Three Sisters
Dalaffilla Ketoi Pavlof Tinakula
Dempo Kharimkotan Peuet Sague Tofua
Descabezado Grande Kick 'em Jenny Pinatubo Tokachidake
Dieng Volcanic Complex Kikai Planchon-Peteroa Tolbachik
Dukono Kilauea Poas Toliman
Ebeko Kirishimayama Popocatepetl Tongariro
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Fourpeaked Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruang Zhupanovsky
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)