Activity for the week of 20 May-26 May 2015
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 20 May-26 May 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||New|
|Piton de la Fournaise||Reunion Island (France)||New|
|Wolf||Isla Isabela (Ecuador)||New|
|Batu Tara||Komba Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kuchinoerabujima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
|Papandayan||Western Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Raung||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Slamet||Central Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Tengger Caldera||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Calbuco | Chile | 41.326°S, 72.614°W | Elevation 2003 m
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 20-26 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. Inclement weather prevented observations of the summit area on most days; white plumes were observed rising 300-400 m and drifting SE during 24-26 May, and incandescence at the crater was observed at night during 25-26 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 26 May. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), and the 10-km-radius exclusion zone continued to be in effect.
Concepcion | Nicaragua | 11.538°N, 85.622°W | Elevation 1700 m
According to a 6 May news article, activity at Concepción had increased about three weeks prior and was characterized by fluctuating levels of seismicity and gas explosions. In a 8 May statement, INETER noted that seismic activity and gas explosions at Concepción had decreased since the day before; 15 gas explosions has been detected in a 24-hour period. By 24 May there had been a total of 987 gas explosions detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 20-26 May. The summit tiltmeter network recorded fluctuating inflationary and deflationary tilt from the typical Halema'uma'u source. Nighttime incandescence suggested an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.
Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) | 21.244°S, 55.708°E | Elevation 2632 m
OVPDLF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 17 May continued through 26 May. After a peak on 17 May, sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated but had gradually decreased overall. Lava-flow rates estimated by satellite data had also fluctuated but showed an overall decrease from 24.2 cubic meters per second on 17 May to 2.5 cubic meters per second on 21 May. During 21-22 May observers reported large variations in activity, including increasing heights of the lava fountain (over 50 m high), collapsing parts of the newly formed cinder cone, and a new very fluid lava flow adjacent to the main flow. During an overflight on 23 May scientists observed a large blue sulfur dioxide plume above the vent, lower lava fountains, a smaller vent in the cone, and the presence of a lava tube about 200 m downstream of the vent. During 24-25 May activity remained unchanged; low lava fountains and low-level lava flows persisted.
Telica | Nicaragua | 12.602°N, 86.845°W | Elevation 1061 m
On 8 May INETER reported that activity at Telica had been increasing. Earthquakes SE of the volcano and seven small-intensity explosions had been detected during an unspecified period, although a M 2.4 earthquake had occurred at 1102 on 7 May. During 11-12 May there were 18 explosions, for a total of 64 since the increased activity began. An explosion at 0950 on 12 May was accompanied by small quantities of ash emissions. At 1223 an explosion generated a gas-and-ash plume and ejected hot rocks (pre-existing material) 400 m high and to the W. Minor ashfall was reported in El Realejo, Corinth, Posoltega, and Chichigalpa. Seismicity was at normal levels. By 1200 on 18 May a total of 421 small explosions had been detected (164 in the previous 24 hours); gas emissions were low. During 18-20 May reports noted that 31 small gas explosions had been detected; ash had not been detected since 17 May and activity was decreasing. During 21-22 May 16 small gas explosions occurred, for a total of 540 explosions. Gas explosions continued during 22-24 May. A few of the explosions ejected hot rock fragments and generated ash plumes. Ashfall was reported in Posoltega, Guanacastal, Quezalguaque, Chinandega, El Viejo, Chichigalpa, and El Realejo.
Wolf | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) | 0.02°N, 91.35°W | Elevation 1710 m
According to IG the seismic station located on Fernandina Island recorded several events at Wolf (on Isabela Island) starting at 2350 on 24 May. The most significant signal occurred at 0058 on 25 May, corresponding to an explosion and the start of an eruption. At 0215 the Washington VAAC detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km SW. At 0345 one ash plume drifted 250 km ENE at an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l., and another drifted 250 km S at an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. Starting at 0428 the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) reported intense thermal anomalies on Wolf's SE flank based on MODIS satellite data. Galapagos National Park staff reported an arcuate fissure along the upper SSE rim and several lava flows descending the flanks. Later that day the VAAC noted a smaller ash emission that drifted 150 km SW, and a bright thermal anomaly that had persisted. Satellites detecting sulfur dioxide showed that the cloud was sulfur-dioxide rich and ash poor; ~100-200 kt of sulfur dioxide had been emitted during the first 13 hours of the eruption.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Galapagos Conservancy, Simon Carn, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported 19 explosions during 18-25 May from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m, and incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. During 21-22 May explosions generated ash plumes that rose 3-4.3 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Batu Tara | Komba Island (Indonesia) | 7.792°S, 123.579°E | Elevation 748 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km W.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego remained high during 21-26 May. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose 800 m above the crater and drifted 8-10 km W and SW. Ash fell in nearby areas including Panimache I and II, Morelia, and Santa Sofía. Homes within a 10-km radius vibrated from explosions. Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m above the crater and incandescent block avalanches descended the Cenizas (SSW) and Trinidad (S) ravines.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky likely continued during 15-22 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 15-16 May and an ash plume drifting 27 km W on 16 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kerinci | Indonesia | 1.697°S, 101.264°E | Elevation 3800 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 February-21 May 2015 white plumes from Kerinci rose 50-150 m and drifted E and W. Seismicity during 1-21 May was dominated by signals indicating emissions (100-110 per day on average) as well as volcanic earthquakes (1 per day on average). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit.
Krakatau | Indonesia | 6.102°S, 105.423°E | Elevation 813 m
PVMBG reported that during 22 April-25 May diffuse white plumes rose 25 m above Anak Krakatau, although foggy weather often prevented observations. Seismicity was high during May, and continued to be dominated by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.
Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 30.443°N, 130.217°E | Elevation 657 m
JMA reported that no eruptions occurred from Kuchinoerabujima during 18-22 May, although the level of activity remained elevated. White plumes rose 600 m above Shindake Crater, and incandescence from the W part of the crater was observed at night. Volcanic earthquakes were detected; tremor was absent. Fumarolic activity in a crack in W part of the crater was observed during a field survey. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Marapi | Indonesia | 0.381°S, 100.473°E | Elevation 2891 m
PVMBG reported that during February-25 May diffuse white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Marapi, although inclement weather often prevented observations. Seismicity fluctuated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit.
Papandayan | Western Java (Indonesia) | 7.32°S, 107.73°E | Elevation 2665 m
PVMBG reported that during 22 April-25 May seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, tremor, and local and remote tectonic earthquakes. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 30 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius.
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 20-26 May the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 40-307 daily emissions consisting of water vapor, gas, and sometimes ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Nighttime crater incandescence was noted every night; sometimes the incandescence would become more intense with accompanying emissions. A small explosion at 0023 on 21 May generated a plume with low ash content that rose 800 m and drifted SW. During 22-24 May ash plumes rose 0.5-2.5 km and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in Ocuituco (24 km SW) on 22 May. From 1702 to 1955 on 25 May a series of explosions accompanied by tremor ejected steam, gas, and ash plumes that drifted SSE. Explosions were detected on 26 May; ashfall was rpeorted in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW).The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Raung | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.125°S, 114.042°E | Elevation 3332 m
PVMBG reported that, during infrequent times of clear weather during February-21 May 2014, gray and gray-to-brown plumes were observed rising as high as 300 m above Raung's crater rim. Rumbling was frequently heard at the observation post. Crater incandescence was observed during February and on 12 April. Seismicity fluctuated and was dominated by tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 2-km radius.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
During 20-26 May IG reported moderate-to-high seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. A lava flow on the SW flank advanced during 20-21 May. During 24-25 May ash plumes rose 600-800 m and drifted SW, although at 1730 on 25 May a water vapor plume with moderate ash content rose 1.5 km and drifted SW.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that a moderate explosion at Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted SW; ashfall was reported in La Florida and Monte Claro. During 23-24 May explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SE and E. Ash fell in the Palajunoj area and Monte Claro. Small explosions and avalanches were detected during 24-26 May.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 15-22 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 15-19 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 20-26 May indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 19-25 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose as high as 800 m during 19-20 and 22-24 May. Lava from the lava dome was active as far as 1.5 km S during 21-23 May. On 24 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the S flank and produced an ash plume that rose 500 m. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.
Slamet | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.242°S, 109.208°E | Elevation 3428 m
PVMBG reported that during 21 April-21 May dense white plumes rose as high as 700 m above Slamet's crater. Seismicity consisted of emission signals and tremor; RSAM values fluctuated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.
Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.942°S, 112.95°E | Elevation 2329 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 April-25 May white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50 m above the crater. A sulfur dioxide odor was noted at the Bromo observation post. Seismicity was dominated by tremor, but also included volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km.
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) Observatorio Volcanológico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 19-26 May long-period earthquakes continued at the same rate while volcano-tectonic and hybrid events increased. Overall the dominant signal was spasmodic tremor associated with ash-and-steam emissions. While conducting fieldwork during 19-22 May, OVS staff observed persistent water vapor, gas, and ash emissions that rose 400 m. At 1051 and 1213 on 24 May ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted NE and E.
Villarrica | Chile | 39.42°S, 71.93°W | Elevation 2847 m
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 20-26 May. Seismicity had significantly decreased, although the data continued to indicate small explosions and degassing from the lava lake. Deformation data suggested inflation during 24-26 May. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.589°N, 159.15°E | Elevation 2899 m
On 16 May KVERT reported that the explosive eruption that began at Zhupanovsky on 6 June 2014 ended at the beginning of April 2015. The last ash plume occurred on 3 April, although weak thermal anomalies continued to be detected. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 20 May an ash plume drifted 470 km E.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Aira||Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Apoyeque||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Axial Seamount||Home Reef||Melimoyu||Siple|
|Azumayama||Hudson, Cerro||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Bagana||Huila, Nevado del||Michael||Soputan|
|Balbi||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Bardarbunga||Ijen||Monowai Seamount||Soufrière Hills|
|Barren Island||Iliamna||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Calbuco||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Cameroon||Jackson Segment||Nightingale Island||Sundoro|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kaba||Nishinoshima||Suwanosejima|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chaiten||Karangetang [Api Siau]||Nyamuragira||Talang|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Kasatochi||Pacaya||Tangkubanparahu|
|Chirpoi||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Dabbahu||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kirishimayama||Popocatepetl||Tongkoko|
|Erebus||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Volcanic Complex||Redoubt||West Mata|
|Erta Ale||Kuchinoerabujima||Reventador||White Island|
|Etna||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjoll||Rinjani||Wolf|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)