Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















New Activity Highlights


 Activity for the week of 3 January-9 January 2018


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Agung Bali (Indonesia) New
Kadovar Papua New Guinea New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Aoba Vanuatu Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Agung  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.343°S, 115.508°E  | Elevation 2997 m

BNPB reported that activity at Agung continued to fluctuate at a high level. Visual observations as well as seismic, deformation, and geochemistry data indicated that the eruption was continuing, though deformation data in recent days showed a stagnant trend. As of the morning of 4 January BNPB noted that there were 70,610 evacuees spread out in 240 shelters. The exclusion zone was adjusted to 6 km in all directions that same day, allowing thousands of displaced people the option to return to their homes. An estimated 17,115 people in seven villages have residences within the 6-km-radius exclusion zone.

PVMBG reported that during 3-9 January gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)



Volcano index photo  Kadovar  | Papua New Guinea  | 3.608°S, 144.588°E  | Elevation 365 m

The first confirmed historical eruption at Kadovar began around mid-day local time on 5 January, according to witnesses. The island is approximately 1.4 km in diameter with very steep slopes, located about 25 km NNE from the mouth of the Sepik River on the New Guinea mainland. The Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO) warned of potential explosive activity, landslides, and resulting possible tsunamis.

Aerial photos and observations from Samaritan Air flights showed dark gray ash and steam plumes rising from a crater on the SE side of the summit. It was estimated that up to 60% of the island was covered in volcanic products, which primarily appeared to be ash along with some pyroclastic flows. Ashfall was reported on Kairiru and Mushu islands (115 km WNW), Mt. Uru in Yangoru (130 km W), and Woginara (140 km W), along with locations along the W coast of the Wewak District.

The NOAA/CIMSS Volcanic Cloud Monitoring system generated an alert for the ash cloud moving WNW, as imaged by S-NPP VIIRS at 0330 UTC on 5 January; Himawari-8 imagery subsequently showed that the eruption began around 0220 UTC. The Darwin VAAC issued a sequence of ash advisories starting on 5 January that noted ash moving W at an altitude of about 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l., and set the Aviation Color Code to Orange. Both discrete eruptions and continuous ongoing activity was seen in satellite imagery through 9 January, with the plume visible at distances of over 200 km W and WNW.

Although initial news reports regarding the population and evacuation status were unclear, the East Sepik Governor, Allan Bird, told media on 8 January that 591 residents of Kadovar had been evacuated to Blup Blup island (about 10 km N) due to the organizational efforts of village councilors on the two islands.

RVO stated that during 7-8 January ash continued to be emitted, and blown tens of kilometers WNW.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Loop, NOAA Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that very small events occurred at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 28 December 2017-4 January 2018. An event at 1744 on 6 January ejected material from Minamidake Crater as far as 900 m from the crater. An event at Showa Crater on 8 January at 0359 ejected material as far as 800 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Aoba  | Vanuatu  | 15.4°S, 167.83°E  | Elevation 1496 m

Based on information from VGO, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 8 January ash from Aoba fell on the N and NE parts of the island; weather clouds prevented webcam and satellite observations. The next day a local observer saw an ash plume rising to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NW.

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 4-9 January explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater and drifted mainly 10-15 km S, SW, and W, with an occasional plume moving E or NE. Some of the explosions generated shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the crater rim, causing avalanches of material that traveled within the crater and sometimes down the Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), and Seca (W), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages. Minor ashfall was noted in local areas including Panimaché I (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), El Porvenir, La Rochela, and Ceylon.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 3-9 January HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. Surface lava flows were active above and on the pali, and on the coastal plain.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Based on satellite observations KVERT reported that gas-and-steam plumes from Klyuchevskoy contained some ash and drifted about 150 km in multiple directions during 1 and 3-4 January. A weak thermal anomaly was visible on 3 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 4-9 January Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone ejected material as high as 50 m above the main cone.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5426 m

CENAPRED reported that at 1348 on 1 January an explosion at Popocatépetl generated a plume with low ash content that rose 0.5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. Each day during 3-9 January there were 110-588 emissions, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Beginning at 2032 on 6 January Strombolian activity generated an ash, gas, and water vapor emission that rose 800 m and drifted SE, and ejected incandescent material 200-300 m onto the flanks. Explosions were recorded at 0131 and 0222 on 8 January. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Rincon de la Vieja  | Costa Rica  | 10.83°N, 85.324°W  | Elevation 1916 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1758 on 9 January an eruption at Rincón de la Vieja produced a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya was similar to the previous week; there was an average of 41 explosions recorded per day during 1-7 January. Seismicity was dominated by long-period events, with signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km N, NW, and W. The MIROVA system detected nine thermal anomalies. The sulfur dioxide flux was high, at 3,409 tons per day on 5 January. The report noted that the public should not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 29 December 2017-5 January 2018. On 10 January satellite images captured an ash cloud, 192x132 km in dimension, from explosions rising to altitudes of 10-11 km (32,800-36,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 230 km NE. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Red. Later that day satellite images showed an ash cloud 350x180 km in dimension drifting 400 km E; the Aviation Color Code was lowered back to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that events at Turrialba at 0600 and 1319 on 8 January generated ash emissions that rose 400-500 m above the crater rim and drifted NW and NE, respectively. An event at 2005 generated an ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. At 0630 on 9 January an ash plume rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. An event was recorded at 1412, though weather conditions prevented visual conformation.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Weekly Reports Archive


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Agung Fourpeaked Lewotolo San Miguel
Ahyi Fuego Little Sitkin San Vicente
Aira Fujisan Llaima Sangay
Akan Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Loihi Sangeang Api
Alaid Galeras Lokon-Empung Santa Ana
Alu-Dalafilla Galunggung Lopevi Santa Maria
Ambang Gamalama Machin Sarigan
Ambrym Gamkonora Makian Sarychev Peak
Anatahan Gaua Makushin Saunders
Antuco Gorely Manam Semeru
Aoba Great Sitkin Manda Hararo Semisopochnoi
Apoyeque Grimsvotn Marapi Seulawah Agam
Arenal Guagua Pichincha Maroa Sheveluch
Asamayama Guallatiri Martin Shishaldin
Askja Guntur Masaya Simbo
Asosan Hachijojima Mauna Loa Sinabung
Augustine Hakoneyama Mayon Sinarka
Avachinsky Heard McDonald Islands Siple
Awu Hekla Melimoyu Sirung
Axial Seamount Hierro Merapi Slamet
Azul, Cerro Hokkaido-Komagatake Metis Shoal Soputan
Azumayama Home Reef Misti, El Sorikmarapi
Bagana Hood Miyakejima Sotara
Balbi Hudson, Cerro Momotombo Soufriere Hills
Bamus Huila, Nevado del Monowai Soufriere St. Vincent
Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Montagu Island South Sarigan Seamount
Bardarbunga Ibu Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Spurr
Barren Island Ijen Mutnovsky St. Helens
Batur Iliamna Nabro Stromboli
Bezymianny Iliwerung Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Bogoslof Inielika Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Brava Ioto Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bristol Island Iya Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nisyros Suwanosejima
Calbuco Jackson Segment Novarupta Taal
Callaqui Kaba NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Cameroon Kadovar Nyamuragira Takawangha
Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia Kambalny Nyiragongo Talang
Cayambe Kanaga Okataina Tambora
Cereme Kanlaon Okmok Tanaga
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chaiten Karkar Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chiginagak Karthala Pacaya Tangkubanparahu
Chikurachki Karymsky Pagan Tara, Batu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Palena Volcanic Group Telica
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Paluweh Tenerife
Chirinkotan Kavachi Panarea Tengger Caldera
Chirpoi Kelimutu Papandayan Three Sisters
Cleveland Kelut Parker Tinakula
Colima Kerinci Pavlof Tofua
Colo Ketoi Peuet Sague Tokachidake
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pinatubo Tolbachik
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Planchon-Peteroa Toliman
Cotopaxi Kikai Poas Tongariro
Cumbal Kilauea Popocatepetl Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kirishimayama Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Turrialba
Dempo Kizimen Rabaul Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Klyuchevskoy Ranakah Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Kolokol Group Raoul Island Unknown Source
Dukono Korovin Rasshua Unnamed
Ebeko Koryaksky Raung Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krakatau Redoubt Villarrica
Egon Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Reventador West Mata
Ekarma Kuchinoerabujima Rincon de la Vieja White Island
Epi Kusatsu-Shiranesan Rinjani Witori
Erebus Kverkfjoll Ritter Island Wolf
Erta Ale Lamington Rotorua Yasur
Etna Lamongan Ruang Zavodovski
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fernandina Lascar Sabancaya
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Sakar
Fonualei Leroboleng Salak
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi San Cristobal
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)