Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















New Activity Highlights


 Activity for the week of 10 May-16 May 2017


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Aira Kyushu (Japan) New
Fuego Guatemala New
Manam Papua New Guinea New
Masaya Nicaragua New
Poas Costa Rica New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New

Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Bogoslof Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Langila New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

According to JMA, fieldwork at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano revealed that the sulfur dioxide flux rose from 300 tons on 28 April to 1,700 tons on 8 May; the last time sulfur dioxide flux was above 1,000 tons was 23 June 2015. At 1312 on 12 May an explosion at Showa Crater generated a plume that rose 700 m above the crater rim, into a weather cloud. Four events were detected during 13-15 May; one of the events, an explosion at Showa Crater on 14 May, produced a plume that rose 2.3 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-16 May explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 7-12 km W, SW, S, and E. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and Panimache I and II (8 km SW) during 9-12 May. On 14 May a hot lahar descended the Río Ceniza (SSW) and Santa Teresa (W) drainages, carrying blocks 2 m in diameter, branches, and tree trunks. Sounds from colliding blocks were audible more than 1 km away, and steam plumes rose from the lahar. During 14-16 May avalanches descended the Ceniza and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, and gas emissions rose from pyroclastic-flow deposits in the ravines.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that during 11-14 May Manam’s Main Crater was quiet, emitting only dense white vapor. On 12 May Southern Crater emitted dark gray ash plumes, and on 13 May only whitish-blue vapor emissions were observed. During 0100-0400 on 14 May roaring and explosions were heard in Bogia Station; incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the crater. Seismicity was low (RSAM averaged 50 units) and dominated by low-frequency events during 11-12 May. RSAM increased on 13 May, peaking at 450 units at 2330, and then dropped to 110 units at 0500 on 14 May. RSAM increased to 250 by 0800 and remained at that level through 14 May. The Alert Level remained at Stage 2.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Masaya  | Nicaragua  | 11.984°N, 86.161°W  | Elevation 635 m

The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

OVSICORI-UNA noted ash emissions at Poás on 10 May. Gas emissions were measured by an instrument mounted on a drone, revealing a gas plume rich in sulfur dioxide and low in carbon dioxide. During 10-11 May tremor amplitude was variable but low, and several volcano-tectonic events were detected. During 11-13 May tremor was constant, and volcano-tectonic and long-period events were detected; the seismicity possibly indicated small eruptions. Deformation was high, with vertical inflation of 3 cm since February.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported continuing lava-dome extrusion at Sheveluch’s N flank during 5-11 May. A daily thermal anomaly over the dome was identified in satellite images, and ash plumes drifted 90 km NNE and NW on 8 and 10 May. Strong explosions on 12 May generated ash plumes identified in satellite images that rose 9-10 km (29,500-32,800 ft) a.s.l., spread 70 km wide, and drifted 115 km NW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. A few hours later satellite images showed a thermal anomaly and no ash emissions; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Explosions on 16 May generated ash plumes that rose 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l., prompting KVERT to again raise the Aviation Color Code to Red. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks and produced ash plumes that rose 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Within a few hours satellite images showed a thermal anomaly and no ash emissions; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. An ash cloud with the dimensions of 51 x 43 km was still visible in satellite images, moving E.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-14 May ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, NW, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported gas-and-steam activity at Bezymianny during 5-12 May, and a thermal anomaly identified in satellite images during 5 and 8-9 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Bogoslof  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.93°N, 168.03°W  | Elevation 150 m

AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Cleveland was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 10-16 May. The webcam recorded some gas plumes during 13-14 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

On 12 May the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 26 high-frequency events, 21 long-period events, 2.5 hours of tremor, 12 landslides, and three low-intensity explosions.

Source: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions as far as 150 km.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

KVERT reported that an ash plume from Ebeko was identified in satellite images drifting about 50 km NE on 7 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 May ash plumes from Ibu rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW. An ash plume on 16 May rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind data, and ground-based visual observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 May a gas-and-steam plume, possibly containing ash, rose from Karangetang to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that the lava delta at Kamokuna (the ocean entry area at Kilauea), which had been growing since late March, collapsed on 3 May. Two large cracks parallel to the coast were visible on 27 April, suggesting instability. Between 0935 and 0940 on 3 May a large steam plume appeared in the middle of the lava delta in the area of large cracks. Weak fountaining or spattering likely occurred initially, because new tephra deposits were visible in the steaming area; that activity ended by 0940. Images acquired over the next 25 minutes showed a progressively weaker steam plume, and a subsiding delta. Photos of the ocean entry taken on 7 May showed multiple streams of lava flowing into the ocean.

During 10-16 May HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Surface lava flows were active above and near the pali.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that ash plumes from Klyuchevskoy were identified in satellite images drifting 270 km SE and NW during 5-6 and 10-11 May, respectively. A weak thermal anomaly was noted on 5 and 10 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Langila  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.525°S, 148.42°E  | Elevation 1330 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-14 May ash plumes from Langila drifted N, NW, and S at altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 9-15 May seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest; the number and magnitude of events were higher compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 1.7 km above the crater rim on 12 May and drifted NW and SW. According to the Washington VAAC the Bogota MWO reported an ash emission on 13 May. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 10-16 May IG reported a high level of seismic activity at Reventador including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim during 10-12 May. Crater glow was noted during 11-12 May.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 8-14 May explosive activity at Sabancaya slightly decreased from the previous week, with an average of 38 explosions detected per day. The number of long-period events continued to increase, while hybrid events were sporadic. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 4.2 km above the crater rim and drifted more than 40 km NE, E, and SE.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.9 km (10,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 10 May plumes from Suwanosejima rose to an altitudes of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported an explosion at Turrialba on 10 May, followed by weak and passive ash emissions during 10-11 May. Several long-period earthquakes were recorded, and inflation continued. Gas measurements indicated a sulfur dioxide flux of 1,000 tons/day, and a high carbon dioxide/sulfur dioxide ratio. An event at 0900 on 12 May generated a plume, though poor visibility prevented a height estimate. An event at 0730 on 14 May generated a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted N. Low-amplitude tremor was detected during 15-16 May, and a discontinuous ash plume rose no more than 500 m and drifted N and NW.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Weekly Reports Archive


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Ahyi Fourpeaked Lewotobi San Miguel
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Batur Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] St. Helens
Bezymianny Iliamna Mutnovsky Stromboli
Bogoslof Iliwerung Nabro Sulu Range
Brava Inielika Negra, Sierra Sumbing
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Calbuco Izu-Torishima Nishinoshima Suwanosejima
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Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Pacaya Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Pagan Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Palena Volcanic Group Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Paluweh Telica
Chirinkotan Katmai Panarea Tenerife
Chirpoi Kavachi Papandayan Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelimutu Parker Three Sisters
Colima Kelut Pavlof Tinakula
Colo Kerinci Peuet Sague Tofua
Concepcion Ketoi Pinatubo Tokachidake
Copahue Kharimkotan Planchon-Peteroa Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kick 'em Jenny Poas Toliman
Cumbal Kikai Popocatepetl Tongariro
Dabbahu Kilauea Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Tungurahua
Dempo Kirishimayama Rabaul Turrialba
Descabezado Grande Kizimen Ranakah Ubinas
Dieng Volcanic Complex Klyuchevskoy Raoul Island Ulawun
Dukono Kolokol Group Rasshua Unknown Source
Ebeko Korovin Raung Unnamed
Ebulobo Koryaksky Redoubt Veniaminof
Egon Krakatau Reventador Villarrica
Ekarma Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Rincon de la Vieja West Mata
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Erebus Kusatsu-Shiranesan Ritter Island Witori
Erta Ale Kverkfjoll Rotorua Wolf
Etna Lamington Ruang Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lamongan Ruapehu Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Langila Ruiz, Nevado del Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lanin Sabancaya Zubair Group
Fogo Lascar Sakar
Fonualei Lengai, Ol Doinyo Salak
Fournaise, Piton de la Leroboleng San Cristobal
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)