Activity for the week of 24 August-30 August 2016
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 24 August-30 August 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Chikurachki||Paramushir Island (Russia)||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Stromboli||Aeolian Islands (Italy)||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
Chikurachki | Paramushir Island (Russia) | 50.324°N, 155.461°E | Elevation 1781 m
Based on satellite observations, KVERT reported that on 30 August a gas-and-ash plume from Chikurachki rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that at 0858 on 28 August a strong Vulcanian explosion at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted 100 km W and SW. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW), and was expected to impact additional areas downwind as the plume continued to drift. Moderate explosions were detected later that day. On 29 August a 25-m-wide, 1.5-m-deep hot lahar triggered by rainfall descended the Cabello de Ángel drainage, a tributary of the Nimá I river drainage on the S flank, carrying tree trunks and blocks up to 1.5 m in diameter. The lahar had a strong sulfur odor. White-and-blue gas emissions were observed on 30 August.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
BNPB reported increased activity at Sinabung on 24 August. Observers at the PVMBG Sinabung observation post noted a marked increase in seismicity, and counted 19 pyroclastic flows and 137 avalanches from the early morning until the late afternoon. Foggy conditions obscured visual observations of the activity through most of the day, although incandescent lava as far as 500 m SSE and 1 km ESE was noted in the morning, and a pyroclastic flow was seen traveling 3.5 km ESE at 1546. The lava dome had grown to a volume of 2.6 million cubic meters. There continued to be 2,592 families (9,319 people) displaced to nine shelters. Activity remained very high on 25 August; pyroclastic flows continuously descended the flanks, traveling as far as 2.5 km E and SE, and 84 avalanches occurred during the first part of the day. Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NNE. On 29 August ash plumes reported by ground-based observers rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite and webcam images, and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 26-27 August ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 5.2-5.8 km (17,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and S. Plumes drifted almost 30 km on 27 August. The webcam recorded an ash plume rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 29 August.
Cotopaxi | Ecuador | 0.677°S, 78.436°W | Elevation 5911 m
IG reported that during 1 January-24 August seismicity at Cotopaxi remained low. Small, intermittent gas emissions mostly stayed near the crater rim and on rare occasions rose no higher than 500 m above the rim. Emissions drifted down the W flank and remobilized ash deposits which were sometimes reported by Parque Nacional Cotopaxi visitors.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-30 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 280 km W, NW, N NE, and E.
Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.488°N, 127.63°E | Elevation 1325 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 June-22 August white-to-medium-gray plumes rose as high as 800 m above Ibu’s summit crater and drifted E, although inclement weather often prevented visual observations. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome in the N part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 24-30 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu’u ‘O’o Crater’s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna and spanning about 1 km of coastline and increasing the size of the lava delta at the base of the sea cliff. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 19-26 August. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Masaya | Nicaragua | 11.984°N, 86.161°W | Elevation 635 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 23-29 August seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz slightly increased compared to the week before. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. Thermal anomalies were detected on 24 and 29 August. A period of tremor that started at 1747 on 26 August was associated with an ash emission that rose 900 m above the crater. A gas-and-ash plume, associated with a seismic signal at 1050 on 27 August, was confirmed by a pilot. Based on webcam images and seismic signals, an ash plume rose 1.3 km and drifted NW on 28 August. Gas, steam, and ash plumes occasionally rose 2.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NW and W on 29 August. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Nishinoshima | Japan | 27.247°N, 140.874°E | Elevation 25 m
JMA reported that no additional activity was observed after the 17 November 2015 eruption at Nishinoshima, which ejected bombs a few meters in diameter as far as 1 km from the vent, suggesting the eruption had stopped sometime in late November. Gas emissions decreased in June 2016. High-temperature areas around the crater continued to be detected. JMA reduced the warning statement for the island, specifying hazards were less severe “around the crater” (encompassing areas within 500 m), rather than more broadly “near the crater”.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 19-26 August lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) | 38.789°N, 15.213°E | Elevation 924 m
INGV reported that although unfavorable weather conditions often obscured views of the active vents at Stromboli during 16-22 August, some of the hourly explosions were recorded by a webcam. Explosions mainly occurred from two vents in the S part of the crater and one vent in the N part. Low-to-medium intensity explosions from the N vent ejected coarse material mixed with ash. The S vents were variably active, with some explosions ejecting coarse material tens of meters above the crater rim. The report noted that the rate of explosions, geochemistry, and seismicity were all at low, normal levels for Stromboli, with the exception of an increased number and intensity of very-long-period earthquakes on 22 August.
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-26 and 28-29 August explosions at Suwanosejima often generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.4 km (3,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and SE.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Aira||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Miguel|
|Apoyeque||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufrière Hills|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Batur||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Bristol Island||Iliwerung||Negra, Sierra||Stromboli|
|Bulusan||Inielika||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Suwanosejima|
|Cereme||Kanlaon||Nyiragongo||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Cotopaxi||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Tokachidake|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Klyuchevskoy||Ranakah||Turrialba|
|Dukono||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ubinas|
|Epi||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Erta Ale||Kverkfjoll||Ritter Island||Wolf|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamongan||Ruang||Zavodovski|
|Fernandina||Lascar||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sabancaya|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||Salak|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)