Activity for the week of 12 November-18 November 2014
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 12 November-18 November 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||New|
|Sinarka||Shiashkotan Island (Russia)||New|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Copahue||Central Chile-Argentina border||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 12-18 November HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. On 15 November the closest active lava to Pahoa Village Road was about 630 m upslope of the road. Multiple breakouts were active upslope of Apa’a Street and Cemetery Road, including a breakout traveling along the S margin of the earlier flow that crossed Cemetery Road and burned the road surface. During an overflight on 17 November, scientists noted a marked decrease in the surface breakouts that have been active N of Kaohe Homesteads, and near Apa’a Street and the Pahoa Japanese Cemetery during the previous few weeks. This decrease in supply was caused by a large breakout from the lava tube at Pu’u Kahauale’a, near Pu'u 'O'o, which began overnight during 14-15 November. A report on 18 November noted that the lower portion of the lava flow, near the Kaohe Homesteads and Pahoa, had stalled, but breakouts remained active in the upslope portion of the flow between 1.6 km and 9 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.
The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.
Pavlof | United States | 55.417°N, 161.894°W | Elevation 2493 m
On 12 November AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Pavlov to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch, citing the beginning of a new phase of eruptive activity at about 1500. An observer in Cold Bay (52 km SW) reported that ash emissions rose slightly above the summit; minor ash emissions were also recorded by an FAA-operated webcam in Cold Bay beginning at 1650. Seismicity increased and remained elevated. Lava fountaining occurred from a vent just N of the summit and flows of rock debris and ash descended the N flank. A thermal anomaly appeared in satellite images at 1740. The eruption continued on 14 November. A narrow ash plume observed in satellite images drifted 200 km at an altitude of 4.8 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l.
The eruption intensified on 15 November prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km NW. The intensity of seismic tremor had increased significantly. Pilot reports through 1230 indicated that the ash plume had risen to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. At about 1900 seismicity abruptly decreased and remained low. Satellite observations confirmed a significant decrease in ash emissions; discrete seismic events possibly indicated minor ash emissions that were not detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Watch. Pilot reports on 16 November indicated no eruptive activity, and satellite images showed diminished temperatures in the summit crater. During 17-18 November seismic activity remained at low levels and elevated surface temperatures on the upper NW flank were observed, consistent with a flow of lava and/or hot debris.
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 12-15 November seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and small amounts of ash; ash was not observed during 16-18 November. Incandescence from the crater at night was noted. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Sinarka | Shiashkotan Island (Russia) | 48.875°N, 154.175°E | Elevation 934 m
SVERT reported that satellite images of Sinarka showed steam-and-gas emissions drifted 40 km E on 11 November. The next day a weak thermal anomaly was detected. Gas-and-steam activity became more robust; emissions drifted NE. A weak thermal anomaly was again detected on 16 November. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported an explosion from Turrialba that started at 1926 on 13 November which lasted about 10 minutes. Another explosion occurred at 1342 on 14 November and lasted about 15 minutes, although the strongest part was 7 minutes long. National park officials reported ashfall at the top of Irazú. Volcanologists observed the 14 November explosion and collected samples at Hacienda La Central, 3 km SE of West Crater.
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.589°N, 159.15°E | Elevation 2899 m
KVERT reported that moderate explosive eruptions at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 7-14 November. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 270 km SE during 7-10 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that three explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m during 10-14 November. Incandescence from the crater was visible during 12-13 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 12-17 November plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE.
Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) | 32.884°N, 131.104°E | Elevation 1592 m
JMA reported that Alert Level 2 at Asosan continued during 10-14 November. A white plume rose 400 m above the crater. Incandescence from Nakadake Crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Bardarbunga | Iceland | 64.63°N, 17.53°W | Elevation 2009 m
During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.
Source: Icelandic Met Office
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.525°N, 150.875°E | Elevation 742 m
SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a weak thermal anomaly on 16 November. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 11-17 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border | 37.856°S, 71.183°W | Elevation 2953 m
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 15-16 November diffuse steam-and-gas emissions from Copahue recorded by the ODVAS webcam contained a small amount of ash.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-17 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NE and N. On 20 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 20 km SSW.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-18 November explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 550-750 m above the crater and drifted 10-12 km S and W. Shock waves from some of the explosions rattled structures near the volcano. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and surrounding communities.
Mayon | Luzon (Philippines) | 13.257°N, 123.685°E | Elevation 2462 m
PHIVOLCS reported that during 12-18 November white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted S, SSW, SW, WSW, and WNW, often downslope. As many as three volcanic earthquakes and one rockfall event were recorded per day. Data from a deformation study conducted during 9-13 November indicated deflation relative to results from a 21-28 October survey, although the volcano remained inflated relative to the baseline. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.
Ontakesan | Honshu (Japan) | 35.893°N, 137.48°E | Elevation 3067 m
JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 12-18 November; white plumes rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted E during 16-17 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Poas | Costa Rica | 10.2°N, 84.233°W | Elevation 2708 m
On 13 November OVSICORI-UNA reported a drastic decrease in temperature and gas flow from vents around the lava dome on the S edge of the hot lake at Poás. In addition incandescence from the dome was no longer visible, activity from fumaroles in the lake had decreased, and the lake water changed from greenish to milky. Phreatic eruptions had not occurred since late October.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
IG reported moderate volcanic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador during 12-18 November. During 12-14 and 18 November steam plumes with a minor ash content rose at most 1 km and drifted NW and N. Cloudy conditions frequently obscured views of the summit.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 7-14 November lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly over the dome on 12 November; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin remained elevated during 12-18 November. Elevated crater temperatures were detected in satellite images during periods of clear weather. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
On 14 November BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained elevated; avalanches occurred 79 times, and pyroclastic flows generated by three of the avalanches traveled 4 km S. Ash plumes rose 1 km and the lava flow was active 500 m down from the crater on the S and W flanks. The report stated that 2,986 people from 956 households remained displaced. The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes drifting W, SW, and S were recorded by a webcam during 12-18 November. Dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were visible on 19 November.
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambrym||Garbuna Group||Machin||Sangeang Api|
|Apoyeque||Grimsvotn||Manda Hararo||Sarychev Peak|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Merapi||Siple|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyakejima||Sorikmarapi|
|Barren Island||Ijen||Montagu Island||Soufrière Hills|
|Batur||Iliamna||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Cameroon||Ioto||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Izu-Torishima||Nightingale Island||Sumbing|
|Chiginagak||Kanlaon||Nyamuragira||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chikurachki||Karangetang [Api Siau]||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karthala||Ontakesan||Tanaga|
|Cleveland||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Dempo||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kilauea||Popocatepetl||Tongariro|
|Egon||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ubinas|
|Erta Ale||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Reventador||West Mata|
|Etna||Kverkfjoll||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamington||Rinjani||Witori|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruapehu||Zubair Group|
|Fourpeaked||Leroboleng||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
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Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)