Activity for the week of 21 September-27 September 2016
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 21 September-27 September 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Rinjani||Lombok Island (Indonesia)||New|
|Tengger Caldera||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Copahue||Central Chile-Argentina border||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 16-23 September. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the E flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage and also down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. During 20-22 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SW, E, and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Rinjani | Lombok Island (Indonesia) | 8.42°S, 116.47°E | Elevation 3726 m
PVMBG reported that at 1445 on 27 September a small-scale explosive eruption at Rinjani's Barujari Crater produced an ash plume rose that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted WSW. The eruption was preceded by an increase in seismicity, but the number and amplitude of the events were insignificant. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius.
Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.942°S, 112.95°E | Elevation 2329 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 June-25 September brownish gray plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater. A sulfur odor was noted at the Bromo observation post, thunderous noises sometimes vibrated the post doors, and occasionally crater incandescence was observed. Seismic activity was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes and tremor. The deformation network measured inflation. Based on analyses of satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. (720 m above the crater) and drifted almost 40 km SW. On 26 September the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 21-22 September multiple eruptive episodes at Turrialba generated ash, gas, and steam emissions that generally rose as high as 700 m above the crater and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in some areas of Valle Central. An energetic episode that began at 0320 on 22 September produced an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted WSW. Another episode accompanied by tremor which began at 1345 generated an ash plume that rose 1 km. Surficial activity significantly decreased on 23 September; a few short episodes were detected but weather clouds prevented observations. Seismicity remained high, characterized by very-long-period events. Seismicity decreased on 24 September and activity was very low through the afternoon of 25 September; a few minor eruptions were detected. At 2110 on 25 September an eruption was detected seismically, but cloud cover blocked views. Ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported in Valle Central communities, including San José and Heredia. An eruption at 1225 on 26 September produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NW. Cloud cover again prevented visual observations of activity that began at 1242, and lasted for four hours. Based on the amplitude of the seismic signal, webcam images, and observations from scientists in the field, ash plumes were estimated to rise as high as 2 km. Continuous passive emissions continued to rise as high as 2 km until 1000 on 27 September; between 1000 and 1242 ash plumes rose 300-500 m.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 September ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 85-95 km SW and WSW.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on webcam and satellite images, and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 September an ash emission from Colima rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE.
Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border | 37.856°S, 71.183°W | Elevation 2953 m
The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 23 September the webcam at Copahue recorded steam-and-gas emissions possibly containing minor amounts of ash.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-27 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and, on some days, drifted as far as 160 km in multiple directions.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 23-26 September lava fountains rose as high as 200 m above Fuego’s crater rim, and lava flows traveled 3.5 km SE in the Las Lajas drainage. Explosions occurring at a rate of 3-4 per hour produced ash plumes that rose 450-850 m and drifted 8-12 km E, S, SW, and W. On 26 September a 10-m-wide and 1-m-deep lahar, triggered by heavy rain in the area, descended the Santa Teresa (W) drainage, a tributary of the Pantaleón river. The lahar carried blocks 50 cm in diameter, branches, and tree trunks. Moderate to large explosions generated ash plumes that rose 1.2 km and drifted 20 km W and SW. Lava fountains rose 200-300 m and fed two lava flows; the first traveled 1.5 km down the Las Lajas drainage and the second traveled 1.8 km down the Santa Teresa drainage. Avalanches originated from a degassing fissure on the S flank. Ashfall was reported in areas on the W and SW flank, including the Palo Verde finca, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Yepocapa (8 km NW).
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 21-27 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level rose as high as 10 m below the Halema?uma?u floor, and was sometimes visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera); lava fountains along the edge of the lake were visible from the museum on 26 September. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 20-26 September seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by an increased number of earthquakes and a slight decrease in the seismic energy compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 700 m above the crater on 21 September and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
INSIVUMEH reported that a strong explosion at 0345 on 25 September generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted W and SW. An explosion the next morning generated an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted 15 km SW. A moderate explosion was detected by the seismic network at 0436 on 27 September; inclement weather prevented visual observations of the crater.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 16-23 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. A moderate explosion on 18 September caused dome collapse and 10-km-long pyroclastic flows. Pyroclastic-flow deposits were noted in the Baydarnaya River valley and in the central part of the S flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on satellite images, the Jakarta MWO, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-25 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.2 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Aira||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Miguel|
|Apoyeque||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufrière Hills|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Batur||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Bristol Island||Iliwerung||Negra, Sierra||Stromboli|
|Bulusan||Inielika||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Suwanosejima|
|Cereme||Kanlaon||Nyiragongo||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Cotopaxi||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Tokachidake|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Klyuchevskoy||Ranakah||Turrialba|
|Dukono||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ubinas|
|Epi||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Erta Ale||Kverkfjoll||Ritter Island||Wolf|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamongan||Ruang||Zavodovski|
|Fernandina||Lascar||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sabancaya|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||Salak|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:
Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.
Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.
For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement
RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)