Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 21 January-27 January 2015


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Colima Mexico New
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga Islands New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
San Miguel El Salvador New
Sangay Ecuador New
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinarka Shiashkotan Island (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on news articles, an explosion at 0713 on 21 January generated an ash plume that rose 4 km and drifted E. Ashfall was reported in Huescalpa (25 km NE), Tuxpan (25 km ENE), Zapotiltic (23 km NE), Vista Hermosa, Atenquique (20 km E), and Mazamitla (78 km NE). On 23 January authorities restricted access to the Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima citing increased activity during the previous days. The next day an ash plume rose 500 m and was followed by another ash plume that rose 700 m. Two ash plumes on 26 January rose as high as 1 km.

In a 24 January bulletin, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil reported that Colima remained active, although there was a slight decrease in the number and size of lava-block avalanches. Lava flows were active on the W and WNW flanks, and explosive activity was low to moderate. The recent explosions had partially destroyed the lava dome. Residents were warned not go within 5 km of the volcano.

Sources: Informador, Informador, Informador, Informador, Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil



Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai  | Tonga Islands  | 20.57°S, 175.38°W  | Elevation 149 m

According to a news article from 26 January, the newly-formed island at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai was about 120 m high, 1.5 km wide (N-S), and 2 km long (W-E). The island was an estimated 1 km in diameter with a crater that was 400-500 m in diameter. It had joined Hunga Ha’apai to the W and was 150-200 m short of joining Hunga Tonga to the N. The article noted that the eruption had decreased during the previous week; there were no longer emissions rising from the vent.

Source: Matangi Tonga Online



Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 16-23 January a moderate eruption at Karymsky continued. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 18-22 January, and ash plumes that drifted 65 km E at an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. during 19-22 January.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 16-23 January a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued. A lava flow effused onto the SE flank. Incandescence at the summit was visible and bombs were ejected 200-300 m above the crater. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l.; ashfall was reported in Klyuchi Village (30 km NNE) on 21 January. Satellite images showed a daily, big, bright thermal anomaly over the volcano, and ash plumes drifting 210 km SW, NW, and NE at altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



San Miguel  | El Salvador  | 13.434°N, 88.269°W  | Elevation 2130 m

SNET reported that at 0643 on 26 January a small explosion at San Miguel generated a plume that rose 300 m and quickly dissipated to the W. Local residents reported hearing rumbling and feeling tremor during the explosion. Minor ashfall was reported SW of the crater.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)



Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 January an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds prevented satellite image confirmation of the plume, although a thermal anomaly was detected which continued through the next day.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.108°N, 124.73°E  | Elevation 1784 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 January an ash plume from Soputan rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that three explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m during 19-23 January. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 22 January. Inflation continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 23 January plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.9 km (10,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. During 24-27 January plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, and N.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November continued intermittently during 19-26 January. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim. Plumes rose 1 km on 20 January and 600 m each day during 23-26 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 January ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 22-40 km NE. The next day ash plumes drifted almost 20 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.63°N, 17.53°W  | Elevation 2009 m

During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 µg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, therefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.

Source: Icelandic Met Office



Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.525°N, 150.875°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly during 20-21 and 25 January. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 19-26 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 26 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km S and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 µg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, therefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 16-23 January lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions during 18-21 January generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting more than 118 km ENE on 18 January and more than 530 km NE during 21-22 January. A thermal anomaly over the dome was detected daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that on 21 January webcam images taken in partly cloudy conditions at Shishaldin possibly showed a dusting of fresh ash on the snowy upper flanks. During 21-22 January seismicity continued to be slightly elevated over background levels. Strongly elevated temperatures at the summit detected in overnight satellite images were consistent with possible lava in the crater. Clear webcam views during 23-25 January showed a small steam plume, indicating that the current activity was mostly contained in the deep summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Sinarka  | Shiashkotan Island (Russia)  | 48.875°N, 154.175°E  | Elevation 934 m

SVERT reported that activity at Sinarka was not detected during January; on 26 January the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanosejima on 25 January.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 16-23 January. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 17-20 January, and ash plumes drifting 300 km SW and E during 17-21 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive


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Dempo Kharimkotan Pinatubo Tokachidake
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)