Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 15 February-21 February 2017


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) New
Krakatau Indonesia New
Lanin Central Chile-Argentina border New
Pacaya Guatemala New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New

Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Bogoslof Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Langila New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Barren Island  | Andaman Islands (India)  | 12.278°N, 93.858°E  | Elevation 354 m

The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), reported that a new eruption at Barren Island began on 23 January. Scientists aboard a research vessel were collecting sea floor samples when they observed a sudden ash emission. The team moved closer, about 1.6 km from the volcano, and noted small eruptive episodes lasting 5-10 minutes. Ash emissions were visible in the daytime, and lava fountains feeding lava flows on the flanks were visible at night. The team revisited the volcano on 26 January and observed similar activity during the four hours they stayed. They sampled sediments and water in the vicinity of the eruption and recovered volcanic ejecta.

Source: National Institute of Oceanography (NIO)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

PVMBG reported that seismicity at Anak Krakatau increased on 17 February, with earthquakes indicating emissions slowing transforming into continuous tremor. Harmonic tremor began to be recorded at 1810 on 19 February. Almost an hour later, at 1904, Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material 200 m high.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Lanin  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 39.637°S, 71.502°W  | Elevation 3776 m

Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that beginning at 1524 on 15 February a seismic swarm at Lanin, consisting of 59 volcanic-tectonic, long-period, and spasmodic tremor events, lasted for 45 minutes. The largest volcano-tectonic event was a M 1.8. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); ONEMI declared an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the community of Curarrehue (32 km N).

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.381°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2552 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 14-21 February small Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney cone periodically generated small lava flows (200 m long on 21 February) that were active for hours at a time. CONRED noted that at night on 15 February residents in Los Positos in Villa Canales (13 km NE), and in Mesillas Altas and Bajas in Amatitlán (12 km N) reported vibrations and rumbling.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 14-21 February. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, and a few branches at end of tube were active.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16 and 18-20 February ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE, S, and SW. Ash plumes drifted as far as 85 km during 19-20 February.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bogoslof  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.93°N, 168.03°W  | Elevation 150 m

AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.

An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that although weather clouds mostly prevented satellite and webcam views of Cleveland during 15-21 February, slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite imagery during 18-19 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima observations, the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima reported that during 10-16 February there were 10 low-intensity explosions at Colima. Gas emissions were at low-to-moderate levels. The report noted that the public should not enter the 8-km-radius exclusion zone.

Source: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14 and 16-21 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 15-21 February HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. All surface flows were active within 2.4 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Langila  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.525°S, 148.42°E  | Elevation 1330 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 February ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 14-20 February seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Earthquakes were located at depths of 1.1-1.7 km, in areas N, NE, SE, and SW of the volcano, but mainly beneath Arenas Crater. The largest event was a local M 1.4. Signals indicating fracturing rock increased in both size and number as compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 1.2 km above the crater rim on 18 February and drifted NE, SE, and SW. Thermal anomalies were identified by the MIROVA system during 14, 16-17, and 19-20 February. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 15-21 February IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. Although cloud cover often prevented visual observations, activity was noted almost daily. Minor ashfall was reported on 15 February, and the next morning crater incandescence was visible. During 17-19 and 21 February steam, gas, and ash plumes rose 1-2 km above the crater rim and mainly drifted S and W. "Gunshot” sounds were heard on 18 February.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.78°S, 71.85°W  | Elevation 5967 m

Based on webcam views, satellite images, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 14-21 February sporadic gas-and-ash puffs rose from Sabancaya, and during 16-17 and 20 February rose to altitudes of 7.3-8.2 km (24,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.756°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3772 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-17, 19, and 20-21 February a few explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW. Minor ashfall was reported in La Florida (5 km S) on 19 February and in Monte Claro (S) during 20-21 February.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 10-17 February lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-18 and 20-21 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 15-16 February high-amplitude tremor at Turrialba remained constant, and sporadic gas emissions with minor amounts of ash drifted S and E. Occasional ballistics were ejected from the crater. During 16-17 February sporadic gas emissions with low ash content rose no higher than 300 m and drifted NW and SW. Tremor amplitude had decreased to moderate levels. Similar emissions were observed during 20-21 February, although they drifted NW and NE.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)