Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 8 April-14 April 2015


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Tungurahua Ecuador New
Villarrica Chile New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kerinci Indonesia Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
San Miguel El Salvador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Slamet Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

SVERT reported that on 6 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Weak gas-and-steam emissions were noted on 8 April. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 7-13 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Semeru  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.108°S, 112.92°E  | Elevation 3676 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 January-10 April white and gray plumes were observed rising above Semeru even though inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations. During January white plumes and nine instances of grayish-white plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater. Seven incandescent avalanches from a lava-flow front traveled at most 300 m down the flank. In February white plumes and 19 instances of grayish-white plumes rose 200-600 m above the crater. Eruption sounds were reported five times. In March white plumes and 21 instances of grayish-white plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater. Nine explosions were heard. During 1-10 April there were 18 instances of grayish-white emissions. Seismicity from 1 January through 10 April fluctuated, and was dominated by emission and explosion signals. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that minor ash emissions from Tungurahua were seen almost daily during 8-14 April, although cloud cover often prevented visual observations. During 7-8 April ash emissions rose 500-800 m above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW; ashfall was reported in Quero (20 km NW), Guanto, Guazmo, Mirador, Santuario, and in the sectors of El Manzano (8 km SW), Pillate (8 km W), and Choglontus (13 km WSW). Ashfall was reported in Chonglontus on 9 April. Later that day a plume with low ash content drifted W. During 9-10 April seismicity increased to a high level, and "drumbeat" events were detected there for the first time during 16 years of monitoring. Ashfall was reported in El Manzano and Chonglontus. On 11 April an emission with low ash content drifted W. On 13 April a steam-and-ash plume drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in El Manzano. On 14 April an emission with low ash content drifted W; ash fell in Mapayacu.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that infrasound data indicated explosions at Villarrica on 8 April. The next day seismicity increased and acoustic signals suggested discontinuous Strombolian activity and an oscillating lava lake in the crater. Gas emissions and nighttime incandescence from the crater were observed; this activity continued through 14 April. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Ongoing Activity


Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that 15 explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 6-10 April. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 7 and 9 April, and inflation continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions during 8-13 April generated plumes which rose to altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) and drifted E and SE during 10-11 April.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.525°N, 150.875°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly during 8-11 April. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 7-13 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, and webcam views, Mexico City MWO notices, and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported multiple ash emissions per day from Colima during 8-10 and 13-14 April. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in varied directions during 9-10 and 13-14 April.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-10 and 12-14 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NE, E, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.734°N, 15.004°E  | Elevation 3330 m

INGV reported that on 12 April two explosions from the W part of Etna’s Bocca Nuova Crater were recorded within a 3-minute period beginning at 1505. Resulting ash puffs rose a few hundred meters above the crater and dispersed.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 3-10 April moderate activity at Karymsky continued. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 85 km SE on 3 April, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 9 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

PVMBG reported that on 2 June 2013 an eruption at Kerinci from 0843 to 0848 generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater. Ashfall as thick as 5 mm was reported in areas E, including Tangkil. During 1 February-13 April 2015 white plumes rose 50-150 m and drifted E and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 8-14 April HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. A lava flow from a vent at the S edge of Pu'u 'O'o began at 1700 on 7 April and remained active through 9 April.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that gas-and-steam emissions at Klyuchevskoy increased at 0840 on 13 April and continued at least through 1215 on 14 April. Incandescence at the summit was indicative of renewed Strombolian activity. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5426 m

CENAPRED reported that after a series of explosions ended at 1200 on 7 April the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 78 low-intensity emissions through 1100 on 8 April; gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash drifted SE. Also during this period 93 explosions occurred, and 12 minutes of harmonic tremor were detected on 8 April. During 8-14 April the seismic network recorded 20-112 gas, steam, and ash emissions, and nighttime crater incandescence was often noted. On 9 and 10 April the network detected 41 and 120 minutes of harmonic tremor, respectively. During an overflight on 10 April scientists confirmed that a lava dome was emplaced in the bottom of the crater between 24 March and 4 April. The lava dome was at least 250 m in diameter and 30 m thick. The surface of the dome had concentric fractures and the central part was collapsed from deflation. Explosions were detected during 13-14 April. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



San Miguel  | El Salvador  | 13.434°N, 88.269°W  | Elevation 2130 m

SNET reported that at 1515 on 11 April a small explosion at San Miguel generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 800 m and quickly dissipated to the SW. Minor ashfall (1 mm thick) was reported WSW of the crater, in La Piedra, Moritas, and San Jorge.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)



Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 3-10 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions on 3 and 7 April generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 9 and 12 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l., and drifted 100 km SE and more than 450 km NE, respectively. A daily thermal anomaly was also visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels during 8-14 April. They interpreted those data as indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Cloud cover frequently prevented satellite and webcam observations. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Slamet  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.242°S, 109.208°E  | Elevation 3428 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 February-10 April dense white plumes rose 50-800 m above Slamet's crater. Seismicity consisted of emission signals and tremor; emission signals started to increase on 18 February and periods of continuous tremor were recorded during 21-22 and 28-29 March. RSAM values fluctuated but rose overall. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Suwanose-jima on 13 April generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

INGEMMET's Observatorio Vulcanológico (OVI) reported that after a decline in activity at Ubinas during the previous five months two phreatic explosions were detected on 8 April. The explosions occurred at 0424 and 0550, generated ash-and-gas plumes that rose 2-2.5 km above the crater and drifted SE. According to Observatorio Volcanológico del Sur (OVS) snowmelt during 12-13 April led to large lahars that descended the S flank. A report on 13 April noted that large volumes of ash continued to be emitted during the previous 48 hours.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP), Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)



Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 3-10 April. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 25 km SE on 3 April and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 9 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)