Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 13 May-19 May 2015


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) New
Calbuco Chile New
Chaiten Chile New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Hakoneyama Honshu (Japan) New
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Ambrym Vanuatu Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing
Villarrica Chile Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.77°N, 124.05°E  | Elevation 1565 m

During 13-15 and 17-19 May PHIVOLCS reported that six or fewer volcanic earthquakes were recorded at Bulusan. Weak steam emissions were occasionally observed rising from the SW vent and from a vent on the upper NW flank; plumes drifted SW, WNW, or drifted downslope. PHIVOLCS maintained Alert Level 1, indicating abnormal conditions, and reminded the public of the 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Calbuco  | Chile  | 41.326°S, 72.614°W  | Elevation 2003 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 13-19 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. Inclement weather prevented daily observations of the summit area, although incandescence at the crater was observed during 17-18 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 18 May. On 19 May the Alert Level was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), and the exclusion zone was changed to a 10-km radius.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)



Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

On 17 May, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seven hybrid earthquakes were detected beneath Chaitén at a depth of 1 km; the highest local magnitude recorded was 3.6. A second report on 19 May noted that seismicity had slightly increased during the previous few months, characterized by an increase in magnitude and occurrence of long-period events, volcano-tectonic events, and hybrid events. Thermal anomalies from the lava dome complex had also been detected although the report did not state when. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow, on a three-color scale.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.734°N, 15.004°E  | Elevation 3330 m

INGV reported that the new episode at Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) that began on 12 May continued the next day. At 0410 on 13 May a series of small collapses accompanied the opening of three vents, along a fracture oriented E-W, below the E rim of NSEC, one of which effused a small lava flow. At 0800 a fracture at the vent propagated 200 m from the rim down the cone within 10 minutes. This event was accompanied by collapses, along with reddish ash ejection onto the summit area and the high S flank. Strombolian activity increased that night and was characterized by almost continuous Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by ash emissions. This activity continued during 14-15 May. Ash plumes rose a few hundred meters and dispersed with the wind; minor ashfall was reported in areas from the S to the NE. A single lava flow traveled NE towards Mt. Rittman, and then E towards Mt. Simone where it formed two branches. One branch approached the base of the N wall of the Valle del Bove while the other traveled W to a distance 5 km from NSEC. Activity decreased on 15 May and ceased on 16 May.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Hakoneyama  | Honshu (Japan)  | 35.233°N, 139.021°E  | Elevation 1438 m

JMA reported that during 14-17 May seismicity at Hakoneyama remained high. Inclinometer data showed variations related to seismicity, and vigorous steaming from the hot springs was observed. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). According to a news article, the ground level in the Owakudani hot spring area had risen 12 cm during 17 April-15 May; the deformation occurred in an area 200 m in diameter. The article also noted that 471 earthquakes were recorded on 15 May, the highest number ever recorded there in one day.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that the circulating lava lake in the pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater started to drop on 9 May and as of 15 May was about 50 m lower than the raised vent rim. The lake-level drop was accompanied by a change from inflation of the summit area to deflation centered near Halema'uma'u Crater. In addition, on 13 May, the focus of deformation changed to the S part of Kilauea's summit caldera and upper Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ), where rapid and localized inflationary tilt was recorded. Seismicity shifted from Kilauea's summit and the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) to the S part of the summit; seismicity at the upper SWRZ continued. The number of earthquakes increased on 15 May. The data suggest that magma had moved into a shallow area beneath the S part of the caldera and upper SWRZ. During 16-18 May rates of tilting slowed, and seismicity at the summit and SWRZ remained above background levels but had decreased. By 19 May seismicity rates at the summit were normal and tilit had decreased slightly. The lava lake remained about 45-50 m below the crater floor.

Nighttime incandescence suggested an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to have active surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

PVMBG reported that during 6-13 May observers of Lokon-Empung noted white plumes rising 25-50 m above Tompaluan Crater, although inclement weather often prevented observations. Seismicity fluctuated but slightly decreased overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach Tompaluan Crater within a radius of 2.5 km. Based on ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 May. Inclement weather prevented satellite views of the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that during 4-16 May the number and magnitude of earthquakes at Piton de la Fournaise increased, and inflation was detected at the base of the summit cone. Gas emissions intensified; specifically hydrogen sulfide emissions increased on 5 May after a peak of sulfur dioxide values on 3 May. A seismic crisis was detected on 17 May. Between 1100 and 1230 the network detected 200 volcano-tectonic events, and then at 1250 a more intense seismic crisis began. Significant deformation at the crater rim was detected and a few minutes later, at 1345, an eruption started outside and SE of Dolomieu crater in the Castle crater area. Visual confirmation occurred 15 minutes later as clouds moved away. Volcanologists observed the area and noted lava fountains from three fissures, and two lava flows. A very large gas plume emitted during the first few hours of the eruption rose 3.6-4 km altitude and drifted NW. The fissure furthest W stopped issuing lava fountains before midnight. On 18 May only one fissure was active and the SSW-drifting gas plume was much smaller. Hydrogen sulfide emissions continued to be high, and carbon dioxide emissions increased. Lava fountains from a single vent along the second fissure, further E, rose 40-50 m. The lava flow had traveled 4 km, reaching an elevation of 1.1 km. Three field observations occurred on 19 May; scientists observed lava fountains 20-30 m high, and the advancing lava flow which had traveled 750 m in the previous day, reaching 1 km elevation.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPDLF)



Ongoing Activity


Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported 31 explosions during 11-18 May from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,800 m. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 11 May. The next day a very small explosion at Minami-Dake Crater generated a 200-m-high plume. Three larger explosions from Showa Crater, at 2104 and 2200 on 13 May, and 0416 on 14 May, generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km. Tephra, about 2 cm in diameter, and ashfall reported in Kagoshima Kurokami was attributed to the explosion at 2104 on 13 May. During 15-18 May ash plumes rose as high as 3 km twice, except from an explosion at 1732 on 17 May, an event that produced a 3.8-km-high ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Ambrym  | Vanuatu  | 16.25°S, 168.12°E  | Elevation 1334 m

On 18 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall.

Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory



Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.792°S, 123.579°E  | Elevation 748 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.525°N, 150.875°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly on 12 and 16 May. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 13-18 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, webcam views, and wind models, the Washington VAAC reported that on 16 May an ash plume rose from Colima to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 95 km ESE before dissipating. A thermal anomaly was also visible. Ash emissions later that day also dissipated within 95 km ESE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-19 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-75 km E and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 14-15 May the number and intensity of explosions at Fuego was high. During 14-17 May ash plumes rose 450-750 m above the crater and drifted 10-12 km W and SW. Shock waves from some explosions rattled nearby houses on the W and SW flanks, including in Morelia, Panimache, and Sangre de Cristo. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, and Santa Sofía. Incandescent tephra was ejected 150-200 m above the crater and block avalanches descended multiple drainages. In a special report from 18 May, INSIVUMEH stated that hours after of an effusive eruption that ended at 1730 observers noted ash plumes drifting 10 km and a S-flank lava flow. The report also stated that inclement weather had hindered views during the previous few days. During 18-19 May explosions generated ash plumes that rose 550-750 m and drifted 10 km W and SW. Ash fell in Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Santa Sofía. Incandescent tephra was ejected 150 m above the crater and block avalanches descended multiple drainages.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky likely continued during 8-15 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 May an ash plume from Manam drifted over 35 km NE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 8-15 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was also detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 13-19 May, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. On 15 May a low-level vigorous gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash was recorded by the webcam. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

PVMBG reported that foggy weather prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 4-12 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. On 4 May dense white-to-gray plumes rose 700 m above the summit. During 7-11 May white plumes rose as high as 700 m. Lava from the dome traveled 1 km S on 10 May. A pyroclastic flow originating from the lava dome traveled 3 km S on 12 May, and produced ash plumes mainly obscured by fog. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; levels declined overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.108°N, 124.73°E  | Elevation 1784 m

PVMBG reported that during 6-13 May white plumes were observed rising as high as 100 m above Soputan even though inclement weather sometimes obscured crater views. Seismicity fluctuated; volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that an ash emission from Turrialba occurred at 1520 on 14 May and drifted W. An eruption that started at 1018 on 18 May, and lasted for 23 minutes, generated an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater and drifted NW. Another ash emission from a 25-minute-long eruption, which began at 1350, rose 500 m and drifted NW. At 1549 a third ash emission drifted NNW at an unknown altitude due to cloudy conditions.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 6-12 May. Activity was characterized by weak and infrequent Strombolian explosions from the lava lake, diffuse gas emissions with occasional ash, nighttime crater incandescence, and decreasing seismicity. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that weak activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 8-15 May. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 14 May; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive


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Calbuco Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
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Chachadake [Tiatia] Kanlaon NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
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Chikurachki Karthala Okmok Tanaga
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Dieng Volcanic Complex Kirishimayama Popocatepetl Tongkoko
Dukono Kizimen Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Tungurahua
Ebeko Klyuchevskoy Rabaul Turrialba
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Egon Korovin Raoul Island Ulawun
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)