Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















New Activity Highlights


 Activity for the week of 18 May-24 May 2016


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Santa Maria Guatemala New
Turrialba Costa Rica New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Masaya Nicaragua Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Pavlof United States Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sangay Ecuador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.734°N, 15.004°E  | Elevation 3330 m

INGV reported that intense Strombolian activity began at Etna's Northeast Crater (NEC) during the evening of 17 May. Incandescent bombs were ejected above the crater rim and tephra was deposited on the flanks. During the morning of 18 May this activity was accompanied by ash emissions that drifted E and rapidly dispersed. Weak incandescence from the 25 November 2015 vent, on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was visible, and an inclinometer about 1 km NW of NEC recorded rapid inflation of the summit area.

Just after 1250 on 18 May cameras recorded the onset of activity at Voragine (VOR) crater, which within a few minutes evolved into a pulsating lava fountain. At the same time Strombolian activity at NEC diminished and dark ash emissions formed briefly. Ash plumes from VOR rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater and drifted ESE. During the afternoon lava overflowed from the W rim of the Voragine-Bocca Nuova depression, and traveled W within the summit area. A second lava flow, emitted from a vent located at the E base of the Northeast Crater (NEC), expanded into the N portion of the Valle del Bove. The second lava flow remained active until the early morning hours of 19 May. Later that morning, the volcanic tremor amplitude sharply increased, and contemporaneously loud and virtually continuous bangs were heard in populated areas to the E and S of the volcano. A dense eruption plume drifted E at an altitude slightly higher than 1 km above the summit of Etna. Ash and lapilli fell onto the E flank of the volcano, near an area affected by the tephra fall on the previous day. A few hours later images revealed a new lava flow from VOR traveling W. Eruptive activity continued at least through 0900, though the volcanic tremor amplitude had diminished.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.756°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3772 m

In a special report posted on 22 May, INSIVUMEH reported a high level of activity at Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Strong explosions generated dense ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km and drifted over 40 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in Colomba, Coatepeque, San Felipe Retalhuleu, El Nuevo Palmar, Las Marías, Aldea Loma Linda, San Marcos Palajunoj, the ranches of El Faro, La Florida Patzulin, and El Patrocinio, and other areas on the E flank. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km, down the E, S, and W flanks of Caliente cone and down the Cabello de Ángel and San Isidro drainages. The report also noted that during recent days ballistics were ejected as far as 3 km.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that starting at about 1800 on 17 May the seismic network at Turrialba began recording very-long-period earthquakes, followed by sustained volcanic tremor with significant amplitude that began at 2200. At 1120 on 18 May an ash plume rose 600-700 m above the summit area and drifted SW. At 1430 tremor amplitude decreased, along with the emissions. A gas-and-vapor plume with low ash content rose as high as 300 m and drifted WNW. On 19 May vigorous gas emissions were observed, alternating with ash emissions at 0600, 0938, 1111, and 1405. The plumes rose 300-700 m and drifted S, SW, W, and NW; ashfall was reported in areas of Valle Central, including in Coronado, Guadalupe, and Heredia (38 km W). Tremor increased slightly at 1550 and an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NNW. On 20 May at 0720 a Strombolian phase began, producing an ash-and-gas plume that rose 3 km and drifted W. The eruptive column collapsed, generating pyroclastic flows that reached the nearby ranches of La Silva and La Picada, Irazu volcano, and the Cráter Central. According to a news article, some airlines have canceled or delayed flights into the Juan Santamaría International Airport (48 km W).

Gas-and-ash emissions continued during 21-22 May; plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit. Villagers reported ashfall in areas of San José (70 km W), Cartago (25 km SW), Alajuela (49 km W), Heredia (38 km W), Puriscal (65 km WSW), and Jaco (100 km SW). During 22-23 May tremor amplitude decreased. Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted W and SW on 23 May, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Tapezco (Zarcero-Alfaro Ruíz, 70 km WNW), Guácima de Alajuela (55 km WSW), Cartago (25 km SW), Alajuela, Heredia, Barva (39 km W), Finca Lara (17 km W), Finca Laguna (23 km WNW), Grecia, and Naranjo. Seismic tremor amplitude significantly decreased on 24 May, and ash was no longer visible in the emissions. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 500 m above the volcano.

Sources: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Tico Times



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano remained vigorously active. During 16-23 May the seismic network detected 15 explosions at Showa Crater, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim (on 16 May). A small-scale explosion occurred at Minamidake summit crater on 18 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Alaid  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 50.861°N, 155.565°E  | Elevation 2285 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 13-20 May. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the volcano during 13-16 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 May ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 110 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

Based on analysis of satellite data, on 18 May AVO reported that a small-volume lava dome had erupted in Cleveland's summit crater during the past several days. The 50-m-diameter dome was similar in size and morphology to the past 10 domes extruded and destroyed since 2011 (the most recent cycle was earlier in May). Weak seismicity detected on 17 May was likely caused by lava extrusion. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, satellite data, and webcam views, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 and 24 May ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.9 km (14,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-22 and 24 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

On 19 May CONRED reported that pyroclastic flows not generated by explosions had descended Fuego's flanks during the previous 12 hours. INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-22 May weak-to-moderate explosions generated ahs plumes that rose 450-750 m above the crater and drifted 7 km W, SW, and S. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m high and generated avalanches down the Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Santa Teresa (W), Ceniza (SSW), and Honda drainages. A 300-m-long lava flow was active in the Las Lajas drainage. CONRED noted that at 1800 on 22 May Fuego began its 10th Strombolian phase for 2016, characterized by a 1.5-km-long lava flow, explosions, and ash plumes that rose 1.3 km above the crater and drifted 15 km W and SW. During 23-24 May explosions produced ash plumes that rose 4.3-4.8 km and drifted 10-15 km WSW. The lava flow was active as far as 1 km.

Sources: Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 18-24 May. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent; some rockfall/wall collapse events occurred during 19-20 May. Webcams recorded glow from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and from skylights in the lava tube on the NE flank of the cone. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. On 19 May HVO noted that webcams detected about 1 m of uplift of the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor during the previous few days. During 19-20 May four small rockfalls from the crater wall resulted in disturbance to the lake surface or increased spattering.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 13-20 May. Satellite and video data showed a lava flow effusing on the SE flank, down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the volcano, and ash plumes drifting as far as 80 km E and SE on 13 and 16 May. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Masaya  | Nicaragua  | 11.984°N, 86.161°W  | Elevation 635 m

INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 17-23 May seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by long-period and very-long-period earthquakes, episodes of continuous tremor, and pulses of volcanic tremor associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater during the week. Ashfall was reported in La Florida, Manizales, on 20 May. According to a news article an ash emission on 20 May prompted closure of the La Nubia airport in Manizales. Later that day a gas, steam, and ash plume rose 2.5 km and drifted NW and W. Based on information from SGC, the Washington VAAC reported that on 17 May an ash emission rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Cloud cover in the area prevented satellite observations of the activity. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Salon



Volcano index photo  Pavlof  | United States  | 55.417°N, 161.894°W  | Elevation 2493 m

On 20 May AVO reported that the period of volcanic activity at Pavlof that began on 13 May had ended; eruptive activity had not been evident in satellite or seismic data since the low-level ash emissions observed on 17 May. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, and noted that pauses in eruptive activity of days to weeks were common during eruptive episodes at Pavlof.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5426 m

During 18-24 May there were 43-492 daily emissions from Popocatépetl and as many as eight explosions detected daily; some emissions corresponded with increased crater incandescence at night. Periods of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were also detected almost daily. Daily cloud cover prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

During 18-24 April IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 1.5 km down the flanks on most days. On 18 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km down the SE flank, and a gas-and-ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater. A gas-and-ash plume drifted W on 20 May, and on 24 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 1 km down the SE flank.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on notices from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 20 May an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 13-20 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18, 21-22, and 24 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E. BNPB reported that pyroclastic flow descended the flanks at 1648 on 21 May, killing six people and critically injuring three more. The victims were gardening in the village of Gamber, 4 km SE from the summit crater, in the restricted zone. The report noted that activity at Sinabung remained high; four pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 21 May, and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 May an explosion at Suwanosejima generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 May ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 75 km NE

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)