Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















 Activity for the week of 27 January-2 February 2016


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Egon Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Heard Kerguelen Plateau New
Masaya Nicaragua New
McDonald Islands Kerguelen Plateau New
Nevados de Chillán Chile New
Turrialba Costa Rica New
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New

Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Momotombo Nicaragua Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Pagan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


  Egon  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.67°S, 122.45°E  | Elevation 1703 m

PVMBG reported that during 20 January-1 February seismicity at Egon was dominated by signals indicating emissions; shallow volcanic events had decreased. RSAM values increased on 25 January but did not exceed values detected during the previous peak on 12 January; overall seismicity had declined. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and residents were advised to stay at least 1.5 km away from the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



  Heard  | Kerguelen Plateau  | 53.106°S, 73.513°E  | Elevation 2745 m

Scientists and crew aboard CSIRO’s (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Marine National Facility research vessel Investigator circled Heard Island and observed a plume rising from Mawson Peak’s crater and lava flows traveling down the NW flanks during 30-31 January. Visual observations of Heard are very rare due to its remote location. A MODVOLC thermal alert had been issued for 28 January.

Sources: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), NASA MODIS Rapid Response System



  Masaya  | Nicaragua  | 11.984°N, 86.161°W  | Elevation 635 m

INETER reported that on 27 January the two lava lakes in Masaya's Santiago crater were smaller and sound waves generated by the activity were at moderate levels. Emissions drifted W and SW. The next day emissions decreased and the lava lake in the SW vent was less visible. On 29 January both lava lakes were again prominent, and a third vent opened in the SE part of the crater floor.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



  McDonald Islands  | Kerguelen Plateau  | 53.03°S, 72.6°E  | Elevation 230 m

Scientists and crew aboard CSIRO’s (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Marine National Facility research vessel Investigator observed a plume rising from McDonald Island (the largest island) during the last week of January. Visual observations of the McDonald Islands are very rare due to its remote location.

Source: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)



  Nevados de Chillán  | Chile  | 36.863°S, 71.377°W  | Elevation 3212 m

Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that at 1425 on 29 January a phreatic explosion at Nevados de Chillán's Volcán Arrau dome complex generated an ash emission that was associated with a seismic tremor signal. During an overflight on 30 January volcanologists observed that the series of recent phreatic explosions had formed a new crater about 50 m from Arrau Crater, on the E flank. The new crater was 25-30 m wide and at a similar elevation as the crater formed on 8 January. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1020 on 2 February a small ash-and-gas emission from Turrialba rose about 500 m above West Crater and drifted S.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 22-29 January. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 23 January. Explosions on 24 January generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 235 km NNE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Ongoing Activity


  Barren Island  | Andaman Islands (India)  | 12.278°N, 93.858°E  | Elevation 354 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 January-2 February ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 165 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.525°N, 150.875°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, during 25, 27-28, and 30-31 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam images, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 29 January and 1 February ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 145 km ENE, E, SE, S, and W. Minor ash emissions were observed on 25 January.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 28 January-2 February Copahue generated almost continuous steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash that rose to altitudes of 3-3.6 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 160 km SE and SW.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



  Cotopaxi  | Ecuador  | 0.677°S, 78.436°W  | Elevation 5911 m

On 29 January IG reported that in recent weeks surficial activity at Cotopaxi was characterized by minor steam emissions from the crater and sporadic gas emissions with minor amounts of ash. Sulfur dioxide emissions were less than 1,000 tons per day (pre-eruptive levels) and seismicity had almost returned to baseline levels. At 1843 on 24 January a plume with low-to-moderate levels of ash rose 700 m above the crater and drifted W. The emission coincided with a hybrid earthquake.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.68°N, 127.88°E  | Elevation 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 January-2 February ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-205 km in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 22-29 January. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 23 and 26 January, and ash plumes that drifted about 160 km E and NW on 24 and 26 January, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 27 January-2 February. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and high on the northeast rim. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, burning some areas of forest.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



  Momotombo  | Nicaragua  | 12.422°N, 86.54°W  | Elevation 1297 m

INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 26 January-1 February seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by long-period earthquakes and continuous volcanic tremor associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Earthquakes occurred at depths between 1 and 8.7 km. The largest event was recorded at 1300 on 28 January; it was a local M 0.9, N of Arenas Crater at a depth of 3.2 km. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater during the week. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 850 m and drifted NW on 26 January. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



  Pagan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 18.13°N, 145.8°E  | Elevation 570 m

Satellite data and ground-based observations from a field crew and local residents near Pagan indicated that steam-and-gas emissions have significantly decreased since March 2015. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Unassigned on 30 January.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.756°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3772 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 January-1 February explosions from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated ash plumes that rose 600-800 m and drifted E, SE, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Monte Claro (S), San Marcos (10 km SW), Palajunoj (18 km SSW), Aldea, and Santa María de Jesús. Small avalanches were generated from active lava flows.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 22-29 January lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected a daily and intense thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on information from the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 January and during 1-2 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

Based on information from PVMBG, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-30 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.9 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-65 NE, ENE, and E.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)