Activity for the week of 22 March-28 March 2017
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 22 March-28 March 2017
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Bezymianny||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Cerro Azul||Isla Isabela (Ecuador)||New|
|Chirinkotan||Kuril Islands (Russia)||New|
|Kambalny||Southern Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Manam||Papua New Guinea||New|
|Nevados de Chillan||Chile||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Bogoslof||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||Ongoing|
|Ebeko||Paramushir Island (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that an explosion at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) detected at 1803 on 25 March generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled 1.1 km down the S flank. An explosion at 2228 produced an ash plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim. Ash fell in the vicinity of the volcano and as far as 4.5 km E. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes drifted SE and E that same day.
Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 55.972°N, 160.595°E | Elevation 2882 m
KVERT reported that during 17-24 March lava continued to advance down the NW flank of Bezymianny's lava dome. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 17, 19, and 22 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Cerro Azul | Isla Isabela (Ecuador) | 0.92°S, 91.408°W | Elevation 1640 m
IG reported that increased seismicity at Cerro Azul began on 15 February and was characterized by the presence of volcano-tectonic events. A 1-hour-long swarm occurred the next day, and then afterwards only sporadic events were detected, some of which were located in the Sierra Negra volcano region. Sporadic events located at Sierra Negra continued to be detected during 8-13 March. A 30-minute-long swarm was recorded on 18 March. Earthquakes became more frequent and intense on 19 March, and another swarm occurred during 0700-1800 on 20 March; earthquake locations migrated SW, to the SE part of Cerro Azul during 19-20 March. Another swarm was detected during 1915-2200 on 21 March, with most magnitudes between 2.4 and 3, though the highest was 3.6.
Deformation during 8-20 March was detected in satellite data, characterized by 14 cm of inflation at the SE flank and 11.2 cm of deflation at the summit. Deformation and seismic data suggested the emplacement of a sill 3.5-6.3 km below the SE flank.
Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 48.98°N, 153.48°E | Elevation 724 m
Kambalny | Southern Kamchatka (Russia) | 51.306°N, 156.875°E | Elevation 2116 m
KVERT reported that the onset of an eruption at Kambalny, witnessed by staff at the Kronotsky State Nature Reserve, began at 0950 on 25 March. Satellite data showed an ash plume drifting 35 km SW at altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The eruption intensified later that day, with ash plumes rising as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting as far as 255 km SSW. Ash plumes continued to be generated at least through 28 March, varying in altitude from 3.5-6 km (11,500-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting as far as 1,350 km SSW, S, SSE, and SE during 26-27 March, and 51 km W on 28 March.
Manam | Papua New Guinea | 4.08°S, 145.037°E | Elevation 1807 m
Nevados de Chillan | Chile | 36.863°S, 71.377°W | Elevation 3212 m
On 24 March OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during an overflight of Nevados de Chillán scientists observed a single 100-m-diameter crater, the result of two active craters merging together sometime between 7 and 15 March. In addition there were five explosions in the period of about an hour, ejecting tephra 900 m high which dispersed SE. The pattern of activity changed on 17 March with increased frequency and magnitude of the explosions. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 3-km radius.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 March a minor ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km SW and W.
Bogoslof | Fox Islands (USA) | 53.93°N, 168.03°W | Elevation 150 m
AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
A small explosion at Cleveland was detected in both seismic and infrasound data at 0815 on 24 March, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Cloud cover at 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. obscured satellite observations of the volcano, and no ash cloud was observed from this event. Cloud cover prevented views during 25-27 March, and slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 27-28 March; nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
On 24 March the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week the seismic data revealed 70 high-frequency events, 25 long-period events, over one hour of tremor, four landslides, and four low-intensity explosions. The sulfur dioxide flux was 11-74 tons/day, reflecting low volcanic activity.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-28 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.
Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) | 50.686°N, 156.014°E | Elevation 1103 m
KVERT reported that during 20-22 March several explosions at Ebeko, observed by residents of Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.7-1.8 km (5,600-5,900 ft) a.s.l. Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk on 21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 25-28 March explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-12 km SW and S. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Los Yucales, and El Porvenir. Shock waves and rumbling from the explosions were sometimes heard; structures in local areas were rattled from explosions during 26-27 March. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and sometimes landed 250 m away. Avalanches of material were confined to the crater. INSIVUMEH noted that activity had become more intense on 27 March.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 22-28 March HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. A small collapse of the S part of the crater wall at 0035 on 23 March was followed by a short time of increased spatter.
Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater, from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone, and from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of the crater. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna from the end of the lava tube, about 20 m above the water; the ocean entry was not consistently visible during the week. Surface lava flows were active above the pali, with most of the activity located 1.9-2.9 km from the 61G vent. During 24-25 March HVO noted that a delta had begun to form at the ocean entry, for the first time since the previous one had collapsed on 31 December 2016.
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
On 24 March KVERT reported that gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from Klyuchevskoy's crater, and a weak thermal anomaly was occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale). On 28 March a gas, steam, and ash plume identified in satellite data rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 108 km ENE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. The next day an ash plume rose as high as 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Based on info from Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 March ash plumes from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. On 27 March the observatory reported that at 1029 a gas-and-ash plume rose 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted E. The emission was associated with a seismic event and was also recorded by a webcam.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
In a special report from 24 March INSIVUMEH noted that lava fountains 25-50 m high rose from a new cone forming in the crater of Pacaya’s Mackenney’s cone. The accumulated material had been filling up the cone, causing lava to flow through the crater breach formed in 2010. During 25-28 March small Strombolian explosions ejected material as high as 30 m above the cone.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.78°S, 71.85°W | Elevation 5967 m
Based on webcam images, satellite views, and seismic data the Buenos Aires VAAC reported sporadic gas-and-ash puffs from Sabancaya during 24-27 March, sometimes rising as high as 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds often hindered observations of the volcano, especially during 22-3 and 25 March.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 17-24 March lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome, and ash plumes that drifted 126 km WNW on 19 and 21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22, 24-25, and 27 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E.
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 28 March an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that a weak ash emission from Turrialba was visible during 1800-1940 on 25 March. Periods of more intense crater incandescence, from possible Strombolian activity, corresponded to higher tremor amplitude during 0330-0530 on 26 March. Later that day a small plume with a minor amount of ash rose 500 m above the crater and drifted S and SE. An event at 0752 on 28 March generated an ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted S.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Apoyeque||Grimsvotn||Manda Hararo||Seulawah Agam|
|Azumayama||Home Reef||Metis Shoal||Sorikmarapi|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Miyakejima||Soufrière Hills|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Momotombo||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Bardarbunga||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Monowai||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Montagu Island||Spurr|
|Batur||Ijen||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||St. Helens|
|Bristol Island||Ioto||Negro, Cerro||Sundoro|
|Cameroon||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kambalny||Nyamuragira||Takawangha|
|Chiles-Cerro Negro||Kasatochi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Katla||Paluweh||Telica|
|Cotopaxi||Kick 'em Jenny||Poas||Toliman|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Klyuchevskoy||Raoul Island||Ulawun|
|Dukono||Kolokol Group||Rasshua||Unknown Source|
|Ekarma||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker||Rincon de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lamongan||Ruapehu||Zavodovski|
|Eyjafjallajokull||Langila||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zhupanovsky|
|Fonualei||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Salak|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Leroboleng||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)