Activity for the week of 23 September-29 September 2015
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Activity for the week of 23 September-29 September 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||New|
|Piton de la Fournaise||Reunion Island (France)||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Barren Island||Andaman Islands (India)||Ongoing|
|Cleveland||Chuginadak Island (USA)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Raung||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported that during 21-28 September emissions rose from both Showa Crater and Minami-Dake Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano. An explosion at Minami-Dake Crater at 0233 on 28 September generated a plume that rose 2.7 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 22-28 September seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by long-period earthquakes and short-duration volcanic tremor associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Earthquakes occurred at depths between 1.3 and 7.5 km. The largest event was recorded at 1027 on 22 September, a local M 1.1, near Arenas Crater at a depth of 4 km. Water-vapor, gas, and ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater and drifted mainly NW. Thermal anomalies over the crater were sometimes detected in satellite images; a significant anomaly was detected on 26 September. A pulse of tremor at 1633 on 28 September was accompanied by an ash emission that drifted E and W. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").
Piton de la Fournaise | Reunion Island (France) | 21.244°S, 55.708°E | Elevation 2632 m
On 24 September OVPDLF reported that, since 20 September, seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized but remained at high levels. The cone was 30 m high; lava fountains were lower and less frequently observed. A white water vapor plume rose from the vents. Lava flows continued to be active, mainly traveling as far as 3 km S and less than 3 km E. During 22-23 September a new lava tube formed to the W of the lava field.
Since the beginning of the eruption deformation data indicated no deflation. Early on in the eruption the flow rate decreased from 60 cubic meters per second to between 5 and 10; the rate declined during 28 August-7 September and then increased again, starting on 7 September.
Telica | Nicaragua | 12.602°N, 86.845°W | Elevation 1061 m
INETER reported that a 30-minute period of moderate-intensity explosions at Telica began at 0800 on 23 September. Abundant gas-and-ash emissions initially rose 400 m above the crater and drifted WNW, but then decreased to 50 m. Ashfall was reported in the community of Guanacastal. Explosions occurred at 1645 and 1648. Scientists conducting fieldwork observed deposits on the crater floor from an inner-wall landslide that had occurred on 17 July, and new fumaroles on the crater floor. Five explosions were detected on 24 September. Based on wind and satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 September ash plumes rose as high as 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. During 28-29 September INETER noted that voluminous gas plumes rose from two vents on the crater floor.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24 and 26-27 September ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-100 km N, NE, E, and SE.
Barren Island | Andaman Islands (India) | 12.278°N, 93.858°E | Elevation 354 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 September an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km E.
Cleveland | Chuginadak Island (USA) | 52.825°N, 169.944°W | Elevation 1730 m
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite images, wind data, and webcam views, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 September ash plumes from Colima drifted over 15 km W and SW. On 23 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6.7-7 km (22,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted SW, and dissipated near the coast. Ash plumes the next day drifted 15-30 km WSW.
Cotopaxi | Ecuador | 0.677°S, 78.436°W | Elevation 5911 m
During an overflight of Cotopaxi on 22 September, IG scientists observed low-energy emissions with low or no ash content that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W. Fracturing continued on both the upper parts of the glacier and the glacial toes on the N, NW, and SW flanks. The glacier inside the crater had almost disappeared. Several areas of landslide deposits inside and outside of the crater were noted. Yellowish-green deposits from increased fumarolic activity were most apparent on the S, SE, and E flanks. Thermal images revealed temperature decreases since the previous overflight at the new vents inside the crater and at areas on the S flank. During 23-29 September gas-and-water vapor plumes, often with low ash content, rose as high as 2 km and drifted mainly W and SW.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-110 km NW, N, and NE.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 18-25 September. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on the volcano on 18 and 24 September, and an ash plume that drifted 10 km NE on 20 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 23-29 September. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 4-8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. A small lava pond, not visible with the webcams, remained active in a pit on the W side of the crater floor.
Raung | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.125°S, 114.042°E | Elevation 3332 m
PVMBG reported that, although inclement weather conditions often prevented visual observations of Raung during 25 August-21 September, white plumes were occasionally seen rising as high as 200 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated but continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 2-km radius.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
During 23-29 September IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Daily ash-and-gas emissions rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W, WNW, and NW.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
Based on Observatorio del volcán Santiaguito (OVSAN) observations, INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 September explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated multiple small pyroclastic flows. The largest pyroclastic flow traveled 4 km E down the Ángel and Nimá I drainages. Dense ash plumes drifted E causing ashfall in areas between Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) and El Palmar (12 km S).
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 18-25 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected an almost daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels during 23-29 September, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater continued. Cloud cover often prevented satellite and webcam observations; weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images on 23 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
PVMBG reported that during 14-24 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km E to SE. As many as eight pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 September ash plumes rose 1-2.5 km.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
In a special report from 21 September, IG noted increased activity at Tungurahua during the previous two weeks, characterized by an increase in seismicity and the intensity of gas-and-ash emissions. An explosion on 19 September generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. Later that night weak glow from the crater was observed. Moderate levels of activity at Tungurahua were reported during 23-29 September; inclement weather often prevented visual observations. Seismicity significantly increased on 26 September, accompanied by emissions with high ash content that rose 500 m and ejected incandescent blocks that rolled 500 m down the NW flank. Ashfall was reported in Manzanó (8 km SW), Choglontus (13 km WSW), Caguají, and Palitahua (6 km SSW).
Weekly Reports Archive
|Alaid||Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Azul, Cerro||Hierro||McDonald Islands||Sinarka|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyakejima||Sotara|
|Bezymianny||Ijen||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Cameroon||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Sumbing|
|Cayambe||Jackson Segment||Nightingale Island||Sundoro|
|Chaiten||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karymsky||Ontakesan||Tandikat-Singgalang|
|Cleveland||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Dabbahu||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kirishimayama||Popocatepetl||Tongkoko|
|Erebus||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Volcanic Complex||Redoubt||West Mata|
|Erta Ale||Kuchinoerabujima||Reventador||White Island|
|Etna||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjoll||Rinjani||Wolf|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)