Activity for the week of 18 November-24 November 2015
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 18 November-24 November 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Awu||Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)||New|
|Tengger Caldera||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Chirinkotan||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Chirpoi||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Copahue||Central Chile-Argentina border||Ongoing|
|Karangetang||Siau Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Papandayan||Western Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Rinjani||Lombok Island (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Semeru||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
Awu | Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) | 3.67°N, 125.5°E | Elevation 1320 m
PVMBG reported that during 1-24 November the seismic network at Awu detected a significant increase in seismicity, especially in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes (from a baseline maximum of 4 per day to 74 events on 24 November). The Alert Level was increased to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Fog prevented visual observations.
Ibu | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.488°N, 127.63°E | Elevation 1325 m
PVMBG reported that during 1-17 November white-to-gray plumes rose as high as 450 m above Ibu’s summit crater. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Kanlaon | Philippines | 10.412°N, 123.132°E | Elevation 2435 m
PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic network for Kanlaon detected an explosion-type signal beginning at 0930 on 23 November, culminating with an 8-minute-long steam explosion. Observers reported that a white plume rose 1-1.5 km above the crater and drifted SW, and rumbling was heard in local areas. Only four volcanic earthquakes had been recorded during the previous week, but after the explosion, the network detected volcanic tremor that lasted for five hours. The Alert Level was raised to 1 (on a scale of 0-5). Continuous steam emissions with minor ash content were observed the next morning.
Telica | Nicaragua | 12.602°N, 86.845°W | Elevation 1061 m
Based on wind and satellite data, pilot observations, and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 November an ash plume from Telica rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 100 km W. According to news articles, (at least) two explosions, at 0847 and 0848, generated ash plumes that rose 2 km and ejected tephra at least 900 m away. An unstated number of people living within a 900-m-radius evacuated, and residents in Agua Fría (also 900 m away) noted it was the first time variously-sized lapilli and blocks had reached their community. Ash fell in at least 70 communities in the municipalities of Quezalguaque (13 km SW), Posoltega (16 km WSW), Chichigalpa (20 km WSW), and Chinandega (30 km W).
Tengger Caldera | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.942°S, 112.95°E | Elevation 2329 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 August-16 November white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose as high as 150 m above the crater, and an intense sulfur dioxide odor was noted at the Bromo observation post. On 5, 8, and 12 November booming was reported and emissions rose 1.2 km above the crater; diffuse amounts of ash were present in the emissions on 12 November. Seismicity was dominated by tremor, but also included deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km.
Asosan | Kyushu (Japan) | 32.884°N, 131.104°E | Elevation 1592 m
JMA reported that during 16-24 November white plumes rose 400-500 m above the rim of Asosan’s Nakadake Crater. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 48.98°N, 153.48°E | Elevation 724 m
SVERT reported that on 17 November gas-and-steam emissions from Chirinkotan were detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano during 18-23 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Chirpoi | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 46.525°N, 150.875°E | Elevation 742 m
SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly on 17 and 19 November. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 16-23 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam images, and notices from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 18-20 and 22-23 November ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.9-7 km (16,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW.
Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border | 37.856°S, 71.183°W | Elevation 2953 m
SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 1930 on 19 November tremor amplitude at Copahue began to oscillate. At 0305 on 20 November crater incandescence was coincident with small explosions that produced ash plumes. The Alert Level remained at Yellow; SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1.5 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained Level Yellow for the community of Alto Biobío (40 km W) in the Biobío region (since 3 June 2013).
Based on webcam images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions of water vapor and gas with minor amounts of ash on 20 November; ash was not detected in satellite images.
Cotopaxi | Ecuador | 0.677°S, 78.436°W | Elevation 5911 m
IG reported that during 18-24 November gas, steam, and ash plumes rose almost daily from Cotopaxi, as high as 1.5 km above the crater, and drifted W, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Machachi and Aloasí on 18 November.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-24 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-165 km in multiple directions.
Gamkonora | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.38°N, 127.53°E | Elevation 1635 m
PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1-15 November diffuse white plumes rose up to 100 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; tremor continued to be elevated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.
Hakoneyama | Honshu (Japan) | 35.233°N, 139.021°E | Elevation 1438 m
According to a news article from 20 November, JMA lowered the Alert Level for Hakoneyama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) due to continuing low levels of seismicity.
Source: The Japan Times
Karangetang | Siau Island (Indonesia) | 2.78°N, 125.4°E | Elevation 1784 m
Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported during 11-18 November that the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white emissions rose as high as 200 m above Main Crater. RSAM values had been stable since 6 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 13-20 November. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 160 km E during 16-17 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 18-24 November. The lava lake continued to circulate and spatter in the Overlook vent. A very long-period earthquake detected at 0230 on 24 November corresponded with the collapse of a very large section of the N rim and wall of the summit vent which caused increased lake spattering and turbulence. Webcams recorded multiple incandescent outgassing vents within Pu'u 'O'o; a lava flow erupted from a vent on the crater floor on 24 November. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 1.9-6.1 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.
Lokon-Empung | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.358°N, 124.792°E | Elevation 1580 m
Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 12-19 November observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater), saw white plumes rising as high as 400 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated, but the seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) showed a gradually increasing trend. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km.
Marapi | Indonesia | 0.381°S, 100.473°E | Elevation 2891 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 August-16 November diffuse white plumes rose as high as 150 m above Marapi, inclement weather prevented observations during October and periodically during the other months. Seismicity fluctuated; the number of tremor, tornillo-type, and signals indicating emissions increased. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit.
Nishinoshima | Japan | 27.247°N, 140.874°E | Elevation 25 m
According to a news article from 22 November, recent footage (from the previous week) of Nishinoshima showed that the eruption was ongoing with explosion from the central crater and lava flows. The new island was 1.9 km E to W, 1.95 km N to S, and 100 m high, based on Coast Guard reports.
Source: Japan Today
Paluweh | Indonesia | 8.32°S, 121.708°E | Elevation 875 m
PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during 3-17 November diffuse white plumes rose as high as 75 m above Paluweh. Seismicity remained relatively stable, and was characterized by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions and avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the summit within a radius of 1.5 km.
Papandayan | Western Java (Indonesia) | 7.32°S, 107.73°E | Elevation 2665 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 September-16 November seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of deep volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and hybrid events. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post where observers noted white plumes rising at most 35 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
During 18-24 November IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Steam, gas, and ash emissions rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W on 20 November. Multiple steam-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2 km and drifted W on 22 November, and ejected incandescent blocks rolled 500 m down the flanks.
Rinjani | Lombok Island (Indonesia) | 8.42°S, 116.47°E | Elevation 3726 m
Based on satellite and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-23 November ash plumes from Rinjani rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 95 km SW, WNW, and W. A thermal anomaly was visible on 18 November; that same day the VAAC noted that activity had continued to decline.
Semeru | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.108°S, 112.92°E | Elevation 3676 m
PVMBG reported that during 1 June-15 November both white plumes and gray-to-brownish plumes from Semeru were observed rising as high as 600 m above the crater and drifting in multiple directions; inclement weather sometimes prevented observations. The ash plumes were generated by frequent explosions; 32-74 explosions occurred per month during the June-October interval, although only 7 were counted during the first half of November. A few avalanches traveled 300-500 m S down the Besuk Kembar drainage during July-August. Two incandescent avalanches traveled 500 m down the drainage during 1-15 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); visitors and residents were warned to avoid the SE flank within 4 km of the crater.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 13-20 November lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that no anomalous activity at Shishaldin had been observed in satellite data since weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 October. In addition, low-amplitude seismic tremor continued but was likely not indicative of a continuing eruption. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.108°N, 124.73°E | Elevation 1784 m
PVMBG reported that during 3-18 November white plumes were observed rising as high as 200 m above Soputan even though inclement weather sometimes obscured crater views. Seismicity was dominated by emission and avalanche signals, but was also characterized by low-frequency signals and volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 1.5 km, or 2.5 km on the WSW flank.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported high seismic activity at Tungurahua during 17-24 November, characterized by long-period events, volcano-tectonic events, explosions, and signals indicating emissions; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Almost daily ash-and-gas emissions rose as high as 3 km above the crater and drifted SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported on most days, in areas including Choglontus (13 km WSW), Manzanó (8 km SW), Cotaló (8 km NW), Bilbao (8 km W), Chontapamba (W), Penipe (15 km SW), Cevallos (23 km NW), Mocha (25 km W), Chacauco (NW), Cusúa (8 km NW), and Píllate (8 km W). Incandescent blocks rolled 500 m down the flanks during 18-19 November.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Alaid||Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Azul, Cerro||Hierro||McDonald Islands||Sinarka|
|Bardarbunga||Huila, Nevado del||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Barren Island||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyakejima||Sotara|
|Bezymianny||Ijen||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Cameroon||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Sumbing|
|Cayambe||Jackson Segment||Nightingale Island||Sundoro|
|Chaiten||Kanlaon||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karymsky||Ontakesan||Tandikat-Singgalang|
|Cleveland||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Dabbahu||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kirishimayama||Popocatepetl||Tongkoko|
|Erebus||Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Volcanic Complex||Redoubt||West Mata|
|Erta Ale||Kuchinoerabujima||Reventador||White Island|
|Etna||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjoll||Rinjani||Wolf|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:
Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.
Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.
For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement
RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)