Activity for the week of 14 January-20 January 2015
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 14 January-20 January 2015
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Tonga Islands||New|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Klyuchevskoy||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Chirinkotan||Kuril Islands (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on information from Colima Tower, the Washington VAAC reported that on 14 January an emission from Colima drifted E. The next day satellite images showed a diffuse ash plume drifting NNE. On 17 January two emissions drifted 20-30 km NNE, and a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. A news article stated that an ash plume rose 600 m, and then later that day (at 1800) an ash plume rose 2.5 km. Ashfall was reported in Tuxpan (25 km ENE). According to the VAAC, on 18 January the México City MWO noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 10 km NNE; ash was not identified in satellite images. On 19 January an ash plume drifted almost 30 km NE.
Etna | Sicily (Italy) | 37.734°N, 15.004°E | Elevation 3330 m
INGV reported that in the evening 14 January weak Strombolian activity was recorded at Etna's Voragine Crater and Northeast Crater. The next day occasionally pulsating ash emissions rose from Northeast Crater and drifted SE. Ash emissions continued through 17 January; cloud cover prevented observations of the summit area on 18 January.
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai | Tonga Islands | 20.57°S, 175.38°W | Elevation 149 m
Based on a news article some international and domestic flights in Tonga had been canceled during 12-13 January, affecting about 600 passengers, due to the ash cloud produced from the on-going eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai. The article noted that ash plumes were rising to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. from a larger explosion and that water around the eruption was colored blood-red. In a video of the eruption, posted on 18 January, volcanologists observe and describe the explosions occurring from a vent on a new rapidly-growing island.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
Klyuchevskoy | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.056°N, 160.642°E | Elevation 4754 m
KVERT reported that during 9-16 January a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued and a new lava flow started to effuse onto the SE flank. Incandescence at the summit was visible and bombs were ejected 200-300 m above the crater. During 11-15 January explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Kozyrevsk Village (50 km W) on 11 January. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 160 km SW and NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
In a special notice from 14 January INSIVUMEH reported that seismic data indicated weak ash emissions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater during recent days. White and blue fumarolic plumes drifted S during 16-20 January, and seismic data continued to indicate small-to-moderate explosions.
Sangay | Ecuador | 2.005°S, 78.341°W | Elevation 5286 m
Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 18 January an ash plume from Sangay drifted SW at an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds prevented satellite image views of the plume, although a thermal anomaly was detected. A faint thermal anomaly was detected the next day.
Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.108°N, 124.73°E | Elevation 1784 m
Based on a SIGMET, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Soputan rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 January. BNPB reported that an eruption at 1138 that same day generated an ash plume that rose 4 km and drifted SW; the report did not specify if 4 km was height above volcano or altitude a.s.l. Strombolian activity ejected material 500 m above the crater and incandescent avalanches of material traveled 500 m down the SW flank. The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 15 and 17-20 January plumes from Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.4 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that five explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m during 16-19 January. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 16 January. Inflation continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Bardarbunga | Iceland | 64.63°N, 17.53°W | Elevation 2009 m
During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January.
Source: Icelandic Met Office
Chirinkotan | Kuril Islands (Russia) | 48.98°N, 153.48°E | Elevation 724 m
SVERT reported that weak steam-and-gas emissions from Chirinkotan were detected in satellite images during 13-14 January. A thermal anomaly was visible on 13 and 15 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-300 km in multiple directions.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 14-20 January HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with breakouts upslope of the leading front. A narrow lobe of lava that had broken away from the W edge of the flow field below the crack system stalled; by 20 January the front was about 650 m above Highway 130, near police and fire stations. The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts tephra onto nearby areas.
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 14-20 January seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor and gas, which occasionally contained ash. Cloud cover sometimes prevented views of the crater. Incandescence from the crater was visible nightly, although sometimes only in conjunction with emissions. Explosions on 15 January at 0837 and 1652 produced ash plumes that rose at most 1 km and drifted NE. An explosion on 17 January at 0704 produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
IG reported moderate seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador during 14-20 January. Cloudy conditions occasionally obscured views of the summit. A vapor plume observed on 14 January, containing a small amount of ash, rose 1 km and drifted SW. On 15 January an explosion generated a steam-and-ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NW. A smaller explosion produced a plume that rose 200 m. An explosion on 16 January generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE. A vapor-and-ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW on 19 January.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 9-16 January lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions during 10-12 and 15 January generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-10 km (19,700-32,800 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Klyuchi Village (50 km SW) on 12 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting more than 200 km W and SW during 10-12 and 15-16 January, and a thermal anomaly over the dome daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 14-20 January. Nothing significant was observed in clear-to-cloudy satellite and web camera images, although weakly elevated temperatures were detected in one satellite image on two different days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Sinabung | Indonesia | 3.17°N, 98.392°E | Elevation 2460 m
Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW. On 18 January BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; low-frequency earthquakes and constant tremor were detected. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km S and ash plumes rose 700 m. The number of people that remained displaced was 2,443 (795 families). The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.589°N, 159.15°E | Elevation 2899 m
KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 9-16 January. Pilots observed ash clouds rising to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 11 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 40 km SW during 11-12 January, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambrym||Garbuna Group||Machin||Sangeang Api|
|Apoyeque||Grimsvotn||Manda Hararo||Sarychev Peak|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Merapi||Siple|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Miyakejima||Sorikmarapi|
|Barren Island||Ijen||Montagu Island||Soufrière Hills|
|Batur||Iliamna||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Cameroon||Ioto||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Izu-Torishima||Nightingale Island||Sumbing|
|Chiginagak||Kanlaon||Nyamuragira||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chikurachki||Karangetang [Api Siau]||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karthala||Ontakesan||Tanaga|
|Cleveland||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Descabezado Grande||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Tolbachik|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kikai||Poas||Toliman|
|Ekarma||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Ubinas|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjoll||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruapehu||Zubair Group|
|Fourpeaked||Leroboleng||Ruiz, Nevado del|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)