Activity for the week of 6 August-12 August 2014
- Info & Contacts
Activity for the week of 6 August-12 August 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||New|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Central Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Ijen||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Kelut||Eastern Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Slamet||Central Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Stromboli||Aeolian Islands (Italy)||New|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Kuchinoerabujima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
|San Miguel||El Salvador||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Shiveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Zhupanovsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Ambang | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 0.75°N, 124.42°E | Elevation 1795 m
PVMBG noted that due to decreased volcanic seismicity and activity the Alert Level for Ambang was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.14°S, 155.195°E | Elevation 1750 m
During 6-12 August, DMPGM reported increasing volcanic activity at Bagana volcano. Thin to thick white vapor plumes from Bagana were accompanied on 6, 8 August by reports of rockfalls. On 10 August an ash plume rose to an estimated several hundred meters above the crater drifting SW and W. Moderate ash was reported in Wakovi (6 km W) and decreased downwind. Residents were advised to evacuate to Gotana (9 km SW) if ashfall continued. On 11 August the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 55 km SW. On 12 August Darwin VAAC raised the Aviation Color Code to Red as ash plumes rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 167 km SW.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM)
Dieng Volcanic Complex | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.2°S, 109.92°E | Elevation 2565 m
PVMBG noted that due to decreased activity and no observable flow of gas in high concentrations from the crater the Alert Level for Dieng was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not enter the crater and to be vigilant if excavating to depths greater than 1 m around the crater.
Etna | Sicily (Italy) | 37.734°N, 15.004°E | Elevation 3330 m
On 9 August INGV reported that volcanic tremor decreased and an ash plume rose to 1 km above the July 25 area of Etna and returned to strong Strombolian activity in the evening. Strombolian activity increased at New Southeast Crater that was accompanied by small emissions of black ash that remained within the crater. The Etna Volcanic Observatory raised the Aviation Color Code to Red on 9 August as an ash plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. returning to Orange on 10 August. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red on 11 August with strong Strombolian activity at Etna accompanied by significant ash.
Ijen | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 8.058°S, 114.242°E | Elevation 2799 m
PVMBG noted that due to decreased volcanic seismicity the Alert Level for Ijen was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or crater floor.
Kelut | Eastern Java (Indonesia) | 7.93°S, 112.308°E | Elevation 1731 m
PVMBG noted that due to visual and instrumental monitoring results as well as level of potential hazards the Alert Level for Kelut was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim, crater floor, or the rivers that disgorge from Kelut.
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.78°S, 71.85°W | Elevation 5967 m
IGP reported that on 6 August there was increasing seismic and fumarolic activity at Sabancaya over the past four days. Fumarolic emissions increased, were white to blueish white and gray and rose to 3 km above the crater. On 9 August IGP reported an explosion that lasted 50 seconds at Sabancaya accompanied by increasing seismic activity including a strong increase in hybrid earthquakes. Intermittent views in cloudy conditions showed strong fumarolic emissions continued.
Slamet | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.242°S, 109.208°E | Elevation 3428 m
PVMBG reported that during 1-12 August 100 thick gray ash plumes rose 300-800 m above the summit drifting N, E, and W, seismicity increased, and ejected material was deposited on the flanks 1.5 km from the crater on the W and SW at Slamet. Incandescence and rumbling/roaring noises were reported. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 August. Residents and tourists were warned not approach the crater within a radius of 4 km.
Soputan | Sulawesi (Indonesia) | 1.108°N, 124.73°E | Elevation 1784 m
PVMBG noted that the Alert Level for Soputan was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 August and recommended people not approach within 1.5 km of the summit or within 4 km of the summit on the W.
Stromboli | Aeolian Islands (Italy) | 38.789°N, 15.213°E | Elevation 924 m
INGV reported that during 6-10 August, a new lava overflow occurred from the crater terrace of Stromboli in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco. This new lava flow began on 6 August accompanied by large landslides of hot material that reached tens of meters onto the ocean surface. On 7-9 August, a second lava overflow occurred from the north of the crater terrace that covered a plateau at 600 m elevation and six arms of the flow reached the sea. Explosions from lava/sea interactions produced jets of steam, ash and blocks the rose tens of meters into the air that continued 10 August.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
JMA reported an explosion from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano on 6 August that ejected ballistics 300-500 m from Showa crater and a plume that rose 500 m above the crater. On 10 August three explosions ejected ballistics 500-800 m from Showa crater accompanied by volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor. On 6-11 August, incandescence was clearly visible at night by high-sensitivity camera. The Tokyo VAAC reported that plumes from explosions on 6, 8-10 August rose to an altitude of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, E, SE, and S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.68°N, 127.88°E | Elevation 1335 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 August a low level plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 93 km NE and that on 8 August a plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 83 km NE.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
During 6-12 August, INSIVUMEH reported weak to moderate explosions at Fuego with incandescent blocks being expelled 500-800 m above the crater accompanied by ash that rose 300-400 m above the crater and drifted W and produced rumbling from shock waves that rattled structures up to 8 km from the volcano. On most days, incandescent blocks were expelled 100-200 m above the crater and weak to moderate avalanches of blocks were channeled into the canyons Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW) and Barranca Honda. Dark gray to white plumes rose 4.0-4.6 km (13,100-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 8-15 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in villages of Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Panimaché II, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km WNW), Hagia Sophia, and around the Observatory. On 6-8 August Washington VAAC reported ongoing emissions and on 7 August an ash plume rose to 4.5 km (15000 ft) a.s.l.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 6-12 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. On 6 August a small collapse of the north rim and wall of Halema'uma'u Crater temporarily increased spatter on the lava lake surface.
On 6-12 August HVO reported one small lava pond on the S and glow along the S, SE, and NE edges of the crater floor of Pu?u ?O?o . On August 6 June 27th flow front had encroached on forest 7 Km ENE of Pu?u ?O?o . Monitoring of the volcanoes was disrupted by Hurricane Iselle on 7 August and HVO is working to fully recover from the impacts of the storm. In the interim, staff from the Alaska Volcano Observatory and from USGS Headquarters in Reston, VA have increased satellite monitoring for volcanoes in Hawai’i.
Kuchinoerabujima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 30.443°N, 130.217°E | Elevation 657 m
JMA reported on 6, 12 August a white plume rose 800m and 300 m respectively above the crater rim at Kuchinoerabujima. Views of the volcano remained obscured by clouds other days, but instruments recorded volcanic seismicity and volcanic tremor. The Alert Level for Kuchinoerabujima remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
Kusatsu-Shiranesan | Honshu (Japan) | 36.618°N, 138.528°E | Elevation 2165 m
On 6-8 August, JMA reported volcanic earthquakes continue at Kusatsu-Shiranesan’s crater, although decreased from early August and tremor was absent. The Alert Level remains at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).
Pacaya | Guatemala | 14.381°N, 90.601°W | Elevation 2552 m
Popocatépetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5426 m
CENAPRED reported that during 6-12 August cloudy conditions with intermittent views showed steam-and-gas emissions with minor ash rose above Popocatépetl’s crater. On 7 August there was an explosion and ash was reported in the area of Paso de Cortés. On 9 August there were 5 explosions and ash columns that rose 1 km above the crater. Slight nighttime incandescence was observed. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.
Reventador | Ecuador | 0.077°S, 77.656°W | Elevation 3562 m
IG reported moderate volcanic activity including explosions, long period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador during 6-12 August. On 6 August a dark gray plume rose 300 m above the summit and drifted NW. On 7, 8 and 10 August steam and steam-and-minor ash rose 300 to 800 m above the summit and drifted SW and NW. On 9 August views of the volcano were obscured by clouds and no report was available 11 August.
San Miguel | El Salvador | 13.434°N, 88.269°W | Elevation 2130 m
SNET reported low seismic activity and reduced emissions at San Miguel during 6-12 August. A remote camera and infrared visual display showed mild white fumerolic emissions rose less than 200 m above the crater. Heavy rain has contributed to a debris flow recorded by a station 1.7 km from the north flank on 9 August. On 11 August instruments recorded additional mud flows. SNET reported property damage and two people were affected by these flows.
Santa María | Guatemala | 14.756°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3772 m
On 6-12 August, INSIVUMEH reported fumarolic columns rose to 2.7-2.8 km (8,800-9,200 ft) a.s.l. above Santiaguito to the S, SW and W. On most days, the lava flow (2.3 km in length) moved towards and into Nima Canyon I. Collapse avalanches from the flow front generated columns of fine ash that rose 100-200 m above the flow front drifting E. On 9 August ash was reported on the southeast of Finca San José On the evening of 11-12 August INSIVUMEH reported incandescence at the crater.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that during 6-12 August low-level eruptive activity continued at Shishaldin volcano. Web camera and satellite images showed the volcano was mostly cloudy over the past week, but intermittent web camera views showed a steam plume above the summit. On 9-10 August sound waves were detected from the direction of Shishaldin on infrasound sensors in Dillingham, consistent with the low-level activity. On 10 August an area of hot, glowing material was observed in the crater during an overflight of the Shishaldin summit. On 11 August elevated surface temperatures were observed in the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Shiveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 1-7 August lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s SE flank was accompanied by moderate ash explosions, incandescence of the dome summit, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome on 7 August and the volcano was obscured by clouds in the other days of week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
During 6-12 August IG reported that moderate to high eruptive activity continued at Tungurahua. On 6, 8-9, and 11 August clouds obscured most views of the volcano, but frequent explosion sounds were heard that, on 9 August, shook structures in areas near and around the volcano. On 7 and 10 August Strombolian activity expelled incandescent blocks 500 m below the summit; on 7 August the blocks traveled primarily down the W flank. On 7-9 and 11 August ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose 1-1.5 km (3,300-4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW. On 7 August ash was reported in the town of Quero and 8 August in El Manzano, Pillate, Cahuají and Tisaleo. On 8 August morning rains produced lahars that flowed down the ravines Achupashal, Pingullo and Chontapamba, that interrupted traffic on the Baños-Penipe road. On 9 August night rains caused lahars that flowed down streams Juive and La Pampa. Washington VAAC reported ongoing ash emissions on 6-12 August that, on 7 August, rose 6-6.4 km (20000-21000 ft) a.s.l.
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
During 6-9 August INGEMMET reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. On 6-7 August gas-and-minor ash emissions rose 300-1200 m above the crater and drifted NE and S. On 6 August ash was reported in the village of Para (NE). On 8-9 August, white emissions of primarily water vapor rose 100-300 m above the crater and drifted S and SE. On 6 August Buenos Aires VAAC reported intermittent light volcanic ash and emission puffs to 6.7 km (22,000 ft)a.s.l. and continuous emissions of gases and light ash on 7 August.
Zhupanovsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 53.59°N, 159.147°E | Elevation 2958 m
KVERT reported that during 1-7 August that the moderate explosive eruption continues at Zhupanovsky. On 6 August, KVERT reported an ash plume drifting 260 km ENE of the volcano. Most days satellite data showed the volcano was obscured by clouds.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambang||Garbuna Group||Lopevi||San Vicente|
|Antuco||Great Sitkin||Makushin||Santa Ana|
|Apoyeque||Guagua Pichincha||Manda Hararo||Sarigan|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Melimoyu||Sinabung|
|Bagana||Hudson, Cerro||Metis Shoal||Sirung|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Michael||Slamet|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Bezymianny||Iliamna||Montagu Island||Soufrière Hills|
|Bulusan||Iliwerung||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Ioto||Negra, Sierra||Stromboli|
|Cereme||Izu-Torishima||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Chachadake [Tiatia]||Kaba||Nightingale Island||Sumbing|
|Chikurachki||Karangetang [Api Siau]||NW Rota-1||Taal|
|Chillán, Nevados de||Karkar||Nyamuragira||Tair, Jebel at|
|Concepción||Katmai||Palena Volcanic Group||Tangkubanparahu|
|Descabezado Grande||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tofua|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kikai||Planchón-Peteroa||Tokachidake|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Kverkfjöll||Reventador||Villarrica|
|Eyjafjallajökull||Lamington||Rincón de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Láscar||Rotorua||Yasur|
|Fourpeaked||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruang||Zealandia Bank|
|Fujisan||Lewotobi||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:
Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.
Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.
For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement
RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)