Activity for the week of 27 December-2 January 2001
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
| 0.171°S, 78.598°W
| Elevation 4784 m
The IG reported that in comparison to November the number of long-period earthquakes, which has been shown at Guagua Pichincha to reflect the amount of lava dome growth, and the number of rockfalls decreased in December. Activity has remained relatively constant, with a daily average of 514 earthquakes.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
Because seismic activity was at background levels throughout the week KVERT reduced the Concern Color Code from Yellow to Green.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Surface lava flows continued to travel down Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat to within about 2 km inland from the sea. Overall, seismic tremor was weak-to-moderate near Pu`u `O`o and was weak beneath Kilauea caldera. The tiltmeters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that low-intensity exhalations occurred during most of the week. At 1118 on 30 December an intense seismic signal was recorded for 4 minutes that was characteristic of exhalations with explosive initial phases. At 1955 on 30 December a pilot report stated that an eruption sent an ash cloud to 8.5 km a.s.l. CENAPRED received reports that ash fell in the towns of Huejotzingo (~30 km to the NE of the volcano), San Pedro (~10 km to the SE), Cholula (~35 km to the E) and Puebla (~50 km to the E). GOES-8 imagery showed that ash from the eruption dissipated by 0100 on 31 December. Exhalations also occurred at 0507 on 31 December and at 0936 on 2 January, and sent ash clouds to 8.5 and 7.6 km, respectively.
Sources: Associated Press, Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Reuters, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that seismicity remained at background levels throughout most of the week. Beginning at 0743 on 29 December shallow earthquakes under the volcano were accompanied by short-lived explosions that sent a plume to a height of 2-3 km above the volcano. On 23, 24, and 25 December gas-and-steam plumes were observed rising 300-1,000 m above the crater. KVERT raised the Concern Color Code from Green to Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano remained at an elevated level during 22-29 December, with continued growth of the lava dome and high levels of rockfall activity. The overall level of seismic activity remained high. Rockfall signals were often immediately preceded by long-period events, indicative of explosive onsets. This was confirmed by visual observations of vigorous ash venting prior to and during rockfall activity. Lava dome growth continued at the summit, producing rockfalls predominately to the E, and to a lesser extent, to the S and W area of the new growth. The spine that was growing on top of the lava dome reached a maximum height of 1,071 m a.s.l. The Washington VAAC reported that throughout the week low-level (below 2.4 km a.s.l.) ash clouds that were produced by rockfalls, and periodic hot spot activity were visible on GOES-8 imagery. Wind conditions during the week resulted in a small amount of ash being deposited in inhabited areas in the N and W of the island.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.