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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 17 January-23 January 2001.


















 Activity for the week of 17 January-23 January 2001

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Fujisan Honshu (Japan) New
Hood United States New
Inielika Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Kelut Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) New
Santa Ana El Salvador New
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) New
Ulawun New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Guagua Pichincha Ecuador Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Fujisan  | Honshu (Japan)  | 35.361°N, 138.728°E  | Elevation 3776 m

Several news reports have noted abnormally high earthquake activity during the past several months at Fuji. Usually 1 to 2 low-frequency earthquakes per month are recorded; but recent monthly counts were 35 for September 2000, 133 for October, 222 for November, and 143 for December. No other measured parameters changed at the volcano. While the earthquake counts are abnormally high, scientists do not believe that they are indicative of an imminent eruption. The volcano is being carefully monitored.

Sources: New York Times, New York Times



Volcano index photo  Hood  | United States  | 45.374°N, 121.695°W  | Elevation 3426 m

The Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) reported that during 10-20 January a swarm of 13 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 0.2-2.0 occurred in an area about 4-8 km SSE of the summit at a depth of 4-7 km. This activity is not abnormal; Mount Hood averages one to two small swarms a year, with the last swarm occurring in May 2000. The current swarm consisted of fewer and smaller events than is typical, but it may not have yet ended.

Sources: Associated Press, US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Volcano index photo  Inielika  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.73°S, 120.98°E  | Elevation 1559 m

The VSI reported that during 16-22 January ongoing explosions sent ash 100-1,000 m above the crater rim. Ash was deposited within a 10-20 m radius around the crater; lapilli with a maximum diameter of 50 cm were deposited out to ~500 m around the crater. Observations on 21 January revealed that two new large craters formed, to the SE and the NW. The SE crater was 50 m in diameter and 10 m deep. The NW crater was 20 m in diameter, open to the NW, and 1.1 m deep. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kelut  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.93°S, 112.308°E  | Elevation 1731 m

On 19 January the VSI raised the Alert Level at Kelut from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The temperature of the crater lake increased, the volcano inflated 5.5-6 mm, and a 5 cm increase in crater lake water level took place on 21 January.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that activity increased at Mayon during the week and that all indicators suggested that the lava dome in the summit crater was becoming active although no new lava had reached the surface yet. During 17 and 18 January, 36 low-frequency-type volcanic earthquakes occurred over 24 hours, which scientists believed was caused by continued magma movement beneath the summit lava dome. During 19-23 January the number of recorded earthquakes increased to 60 events per day; tiltmeters continued to record inflation; and SO2 emission rates increased to 8,070 tons/day (a more than 4-fold increase from that seen in previous weeks). The Lignon Hill observatory reported that ash-entrained steam briefly erupted from the summit lava dome at 0932 on 22 January accompanied by a volcanic earthquake. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

The VSI reported that during 16-22 January visual and instrumental monitoring revealed a continued increase of volcanic activity at Merapi. Activity consisted of several pyroclastic flows, small ash eruptions, glowing lava flows, lava avalanches, and an increase in seismicity, especially in avalanche and multi-phase earthquakes. More than 20 pyroclastic flows per day traveled continuously to the Sat (upstream of River Putih), Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. The number of glowing lava avalanches also increased since last reported, with more than 150 events per day observed. The avalanches traveled down to the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers extending as far as 3,500 m. The new lava dome, "lava dome 2001," grew at the volcano's summit over the preexisting "lava dome 1998." The Darwin VAAC reported that an ash cloud that was not visible on satellite imagery reached 500 m above the summit on 19 January. The VSI reported that during the report period ash fell in the towns of Babadan, Ngepos, and Kaliurang. An average of 95 tons/day of SO2 was measured. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Associated Press, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Ana  | El Salvador  | 13.853°N, 89.63°W  | Elevation 2381 m

Beginning on 12 January several news reports stated that increased volcanic activity occurred at Santa Ana volcano. The Washington VAAC reported that an eruption occurred at 1800 on 16 January that sent ash to ~3.7 km a.s.l. Local observations by volcanologists revealed that an eruption did not occur and no new lava or magma was in the summit crater. Glowing cracks that were visible at night were determined to be an existing fumarole field with measured temperatures of 550 °C. Scientists believe that a magnitude 7.7 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Central America at 1133 on 13 January, killing several hundred people, did not cause an increase in activity at the volcano. Since 12 January there have been reports of increased gas emissions and the volcano is being closely monitored for any changes in activity.

Sources: La Prensa Grafica, US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program, US Geological Survey Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Diario del Hoy (elsalvador.com)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

At ~1700 on 19 December 2000, a Suwanose-jima inhabitant reported "smoke" rising NE of the summit crater. During observations from a helicopter, ash-laden smoke and high-temperature gas emissions were seen emanating from new craters. The Sakura-jima Volcano Research Center observed an increase in volcanic earthquakes deeper than 1 km below the summit in comparison to Fall 1999. They also noted an increase in volcanic earthquakes and tremor shallower than 1 km in comparison to early 2000. Researchers will continue to closely monitor the volcano.

Source: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)



Volcano index photo  Ulawun  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.05°S, 151.33°E  | Elevation 2334 m

On 16 January the Darwin VAAC reported that a NOTAM from Port Moresbly stated that Ulawun was emitting a cloud, ashes, and "flames" up to 10.6 km a.s.l. blowing towards the SE. In contrast, an ash cloud was not detected in satellite imagery, and the Papua New Guinea Volcano Observatory stated that recent volcanic activity was limited to low-level vapor emissions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

According to Italy's Volcanoes website, volcanic activity increased at Etna. On 15 January intense degassing occurred at the Bocca Nuova and SE craters. On 16 January, weak Strombolian bursts occurred at 5- to 10-minute intervals at the summit vent of the SE Crater and strong gas emissions with occasional ash were released from Bocca Nuova Crater. On 21 and 22 January an active lava flow was visible extending from a fissure on the N flank of SE Crater, but no explosive activity was observed.

Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Italy's Volcanoes



Volcano index photo  Guagua Pichincha  | Ecuador  | 0.171°S, 78.598°W  | Elevation 4784 m

The IG reported that a small increase in seismic activity occurred and dome 9 continued gradual growth.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

The VSI reported that at 0845 on 17 January a minor explosion produced ash and a lava avalanche. Ash fell around the villages of Salili and Beong and the lava avalanche traveled to the E and W. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

According to HVO, a broad lava flow traveled down Pulama pali as a continuation of the series of lava lobes that developed and descended the pali for the previous 2-3 weeks. In addition, a surface breakout E of the main flow traveled down the forested slope. Small volumes of lava began to enter the sea on 21 January, while most of the lava flowed at the surface and stopped short of the coastline. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o and in Kilauea's caldera was at low-to-moderate levels. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone showed no deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

In addition to multiple exhalations, Popocatépetl produced both pyroclastic flows and mudflows that traveled several kilometers downslope. The Washington VAAC reported that at ~1500 on 14 January a small exhalation sent ash to ~7.6 km a.s.l. They also reported that a larger explosive eruption occurred at ~1615 on 22 January that sent ash to 6-12 km a.s.l. CENAPRED reported that the eruption produced pyroclastic flows that descended ~4-6 km down several gorges on the N and NW flanks of the volcano. Ash was deposited on Santiago Xalitzintla, Atlixco, Tecamachalco, Tetela, and part of Puebla. A small (10 cm thick and 2 m wide) mudflow traveled up to 8 km from the town of Santiago Xalitzintla down the Huiloac gorge. Scientists believe the pyroclastic flows melted a small portion of the glacier near the volcano's summit and the glacial meltwater mixed with ash. Another explosive eruption that occurred at 1915 the same day was followed by ongoing ash exhalations through 23 January. An eruption at 1041 on 23 January sent ash to ~9.1 km a.s.l. that blew to the S. Several small explosions and continuous ash emissions followed. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III with a 12 km security radius.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

On 13 and 18 January seismicity and volcanism rose above background levels. At 0202 on 13 January a shallow earthquake was accompanied by a short-lived explosion, and at 1106 on 18 January similar activity sent an ash cloud to 4.5 km a.s.l. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

Activity at the Soufrière Hills volcano during 12-19 January was similar to the previous week, with continued growth of the summit lava dome and high levels of mostly low-energy rockfalls. The overall level of seismic activity remained high. Activity was concentrated on the SE side of the lava dome, although some new pyroclastic-flow deposits were seen to the NE of the volcano. The Washington VAAC reported that low level ash, presumably produced from rockfalls, was occasionally visible on GOES-8 imagery. Less ash fell across the N portion of Montserrat than during the previous week.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

Ground-based observers reported to the Darwin VAAC that on 15 January an ash plume rose to ~3 km and irregular eruptions sent ash to ~2.7 km. Extensive cloudiness prohibited the detection of ash on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

Based on information from the IG, the Washington VAAC reported that an eruption occurred at 1840 on 18 January. It sent an ash cloud to 6.7 km a.s.l. that blew to the W. The ash cloud was not visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)