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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 17 October-23 October 2001.


















 Activity for the week of 17 October-23 October 2001

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ioto Japan New
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) New
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) New

Avachinsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ioto  | Japan  | 24.751°N, 141.289°E  | Elevation 169 m

On the morning of 19 October a small phreatic eruption was observed at Idogahama, a beach on the NW coast of Iwo-jima. The Japan Maritime Self Defense Force observed a grayish white-colored plume rising to 200-300 m above the beach surface for 2-3 minutes starting at about 0725. A similar plume was observed for 10 minutes starting at 0806. Observations during 1602-1715 revealed the crater that formed during the eruption was 10 m long and 2-15 m deep. Water inside the crater was dark colored, contained debris, and gushed approximately every 10 minutes. In addition, a steam plume rose up to 600 m above the surface.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)



Volcano index photo  Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

On 20 October at 0235 an eruption began at Stromboli. Preliminary reports stated that glowing rocks were observed being ejected from the volcano. A tourist was killed after being struck by ejecta from the eruption. Two areas of burning vegetation approximately 200 m apart were observed at 600 m elevation. Hot ejecta may have landed in these areas.

Sources: New York Times, Stromboli On-Line



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

On 11 October at 1400 an eruption began at Suwanose-jima. Volcanic tremor associated with the eruption was detected during 11 October through at least 15 October. Up to eleven explosions were counted. Acoustic microphones recorded four shock waves associated with large explosions.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Avachinsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.256°N, 158.836°E  | Elevation 2717 m

During 12-19 October gas-and-steam plumes rose above Avachinsky's crater and until 18 October seismicity was at background levels or was not registered. During 18 and 19 October a series of weak local earthquakes were detected ~700 m beneath the summit. On 17 October a fracture was observed in the lava dome that extended E-SE and W-NW, joining the hottest parts of the edifice. The fracture extended 100-150 m down the flanks of the cone.The volcano remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

As of 16 October moderate amounts of degassing took place at Etna's summit craters, with most occurring at Northeast Crater. A portion of the western crater rim of the scoria cone that formed during the July-August 2000 eruption at 2,100 m elevation collapsed into the vent.

Source: Italy's Volcanoes



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

During 8-14 October the number of deep volcanic earthquakes at Karangetang decreased compared to the previous week and no incandescent lava avalanches occurred. Steam plumes rose 400 m above the main crater and 50-100 m above Crater II. A 25-m-high "red reflection" was observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During the week, surface lava flows were visible on Kilauea's Pulama pali scarp and lava continued to enter the ocean at the E Kupapa`u and Kamoamoa entries. On 21 October the lava bench at the Kamoamoa entry extended approximately 80-100 m seaward from the old sea cliff. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Tremor at the summit was relatively low. Tremor at Pu`u `O`o became rather continuous by 21 October and was no longer broken by brief episodes of stronger events. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

During 8-14 October, VSI personnel observed 53 incandescent lava avalanches traveling SW predominately to the upstream portion of the Sat River, and to a lesser extent to the Lamat and Senow rivers to a maximum run-out distance of ~2 km. On 8 October at 1729 a minor pyroclastic flow traveled ~2 km down the Sat River. Seismicity was dominated by 692 lava avalanche events. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash. In addition, seismometers recorded episodes of harmonic tremor.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

During 12-19 October, a lava dome continued to grow in Shiveluch's active crater and several gas-and-steam plumes were observed. The highest reported gas-and-steam plume was produced by an explosion on 17 October at 1740; it rose 1.2 km above the dome and extended 3 km to the W. Thermal anomalies in the active dome area were visible on satellite imagery. Spasmodic volcanic tremor and weak, shallow seismic signals (possible collapses and avalanches) were registered. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

During 12-19 October activity at Soufrière Hills remained at an elevated level, although there was a reduction in seismicity compared with the previous few weeks. The cyclical nature of the seismic activity, which had been a dominant feature over recent months, also weakened. The active lava dome continued to grow at a moderate rate, producing pyroclastic flows on most days into the upper reaches of the Tar River Valley. Two significant collapse events occurred during the reporting period involving residual material from the dome that formed prior to the 29 July dome. On 14 October, after a day of torrential rainfall, several million cubic meters of unconsolidated talus was destabalized on the SE flank of the pre-July 29 dome. This material produced sustained pyroclastic flows E down the Tar River Valley, reaching the sea. Seismic data suggested that the event began at about 1715, peaked at 2245, and ended at about 2300. Ash from the event drifted to the NW and fell in residential areas between Iles Bay and St Peter's. On the morning of 16 October a collapse occurred on the S flank of the dome complex, producing numerous pyroclastic flows W down the White River approximately two-thirds of the distance to the sea. Mudflows occurred in the Belham Valley during several days with periods of torrential rainfall.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

For about three weeks seismic and volcanic activity was relatively low at Tungurahua, consisting of long-period earthquakes, fumarolic activity, and no explosive activity.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Weekly Reports Archive

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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)