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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 9 October-15 October 2002.


















 Activity for the week of 9 October-15 October 2002

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Lewotobi Flores Island (Indonesia) New

Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mauna Loa Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Nyamuragira DR Congo Ongoing
Nyiragongo DR Congo Ongoing
San Cristobal Nicaragua Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tangkubanparahu Western Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Veniaminof United States Ongoing
Witori New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Lewotobi  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.542°S, 122.775°E  | Elevation 1703 m

On 12 October at 2330 there was an explosion at Lewotobi Lakilaki, a stratovolcano of Lewotobi, that was accompanied by a weak thundering sound. Ash fell as far as 5 km away and an ash column rose ~500 m above the volcano. According to VSI, eruptions at Lewotobi usually occur over an extended period of time, therefore they expect more explosions to take place in the next couple of weeks to months. On 16 October, Lewotobi was at Alert Level 4 (the highest level).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Karangetang remained active during 9 September to 6 October, with low-level ash clouds rising above South and North craters, lava flowing from the crater, and volcanic tremor being recorded. The lava flows traveled 25-200 m from the crater rim toward the Nanitu River and as far as 400 m toward Beha River. Karangetang remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 9-14 October at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at points along two active lava deltas. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat, and sporadically on Pulama pali and Paliuli. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels at Kilauea. A few small swarms of long-period earthquakes and tremor occurred beneath the volcano's caldera. Regular deflation occurred at the Pu`u `O`o tiltmeter, while no significant deformation was recorded elsewhere.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Mauna Loa  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.475°N, 155.608°W  | Elevation 4170 m

A brief period of low-amplitude tremor occurred at Mauna Loa's summit on 7 October, lasting several minutes. It apparently was triggered by, or at least quickly followed, a small earthquake. The following day, several more small earthquakes took place. By the 10th, seismicity had returned to low levels. During 8-15 October, the permanent continuous global positioning system network indicated that ongoing lengthening occurred across Moku`aweoweo summit caldera as it has since late April or May.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Nyamuragira  | DR Congo  | 1.408°S, 29.2°E  | Elevation 3058 m

During a flight over Nyamuragira on 27 September, researchers confirmed that the eruption had ended. Only fumarolic activity was observed and weak tremor was recorded.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)



Volcano index photo  Nyiragongo  | DR Congo  | 1.52°S, 29.25°E  | Elevation 3470 m

During a flight over Nyiragongo on 27 September, researchers' views into the crater were obscured by a large gas plume. The plume was present from mid-September through at least 10 October and reached to ~3 km above the volcano. During some nights from late September to 10 October, red glow reflecting off of the cloud was visible from towns near the volcano. The glow was caused by Strombolian explosions and the light emitted by the combustion of gases. While visiting the volcano during this time period, researchers heard loud noises emanating from the crater, and saw that volcanic material was ejected ~150 m vertically and no lava lake was visible. On 6 October they heard a partial wall collapse in the internal crater.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)



Volcano index photo  San Cristobal  | Nicaragua  | 12.702°N, 87.004°W  | Elevation 1745 m

The Washington VAAC reported that on 15 October beginning at 0615 a plume was visible in satellite imagery rising from San Cristóbal. It appeared to be composed mostly of steam, but there may have been some ash present.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

During 4-11 October, seismicity remained above background levels at Shiveluch. Seven earthquakes with magnitudes 2-2.4 occurred, as well as many smaller ones. During this interval, seismic data suggested there had been hot avalanches and 16 ash-and-gas explosions in which clouds reached 1-2 km above the lava dome. Intermittent spasmodic tremor was recorded. Gas-and-steam plumes were visible rising to 1 km above the lava dome. On the evening of the 6th, incandescence was visible at the lava dome. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery, but ash was not. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

During 4-11 October, volcanic and seismic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at moderate levels. The NW extrusion lobe of the lava dome continued to grow steadily; early in the report period it grew to the NW, but later growth was more centralized. There was a noticeable bulking up of the summit area of the lobe. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows were shed into the upper portions of Fort Ghaut and Tuitt's Ghaut. Minor mudflow activity occurred during the evening of the 9th. The growth of the lava dome towards the NW increased the probability of pyroclastic flows entering the Belham River system. In order to reduce the level of risk this poses, populated areas along the fringes of the lower part of the Belham Valley (~300 people) were evacuated on 8 and 9 October, and were declared part of the Exclusion Zone. A relatively small pyroclastic flow traveled NNE down the flanks of the volcano on the 13th.

Sources: Associated Press, Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tangkubanparahu  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 6.77°S, 107.6°E  | Elevation 2084 m

During 9 September to 6 October, seismicity at Tangkubanparahu was dominated by volcanic events. Also, thin ash plumes rose 2.5 m above the volcano. Tangkubanparahu remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 9-15 October, emissions of steam, gas, and ash continued at Tungurahua. Ash was seen rising to a maximum height of ~7.9 km a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

Veniaminof remained restless during 4-11 October. Although seismicity was lower than when first noted in early September, it was still above background levels. Visual observations of Veniaminof during the week were intermittent and inconclusive. No thermal anomalies were observed on satellite imagery. AVO considered the activity at Veniaminof to be minor, but the exact nature of the unrest remained unknown. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Yellow due to the continuing seismicity.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Witori  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.576°S, 150.516°E  | Elevation 724 m

Volcanic activity continued at Pago during 9-15 October. According to a news article, scientists found that inflation continued at the volcano, with ~1 cm of uplift occurring in a month. By 10 October, approximately 15,000 residents near the volcano had been evacuated since volcanic activity commenced in August.

Sources: Associated Press, ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fuego Llaima San Cristobal
Ahyi Fujisan Loihi San Miguel
Aira Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung San Vicente
Akan Galeras Lopevi Sangay
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Alu-Dalafilla Gamalama Makian Santa Ana
Ambae Gamkonora Makushin Santa Maria
Ambang Gaua Maly Semyachik Sarigan
Ambrym Gorely Manam Sarychev Peak
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Antuco Grimsvotn Marapi Semeru
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Askja Hachijojima Mauna Loa Shishaldin
Asosan Hakoneyama Mayon Simbo
Augustine Heard McDonald Islands Sinabung
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Azul, Cerro Home Reef Midagahara Slamet
Azumayama Hood Misti, El Soputan
Bagana Hudson, Cerro Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Balbi Huila, Nevado del Momotombo Sotara
Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)