Activity for the week of 5 January-11 January 2005
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Mariana Islands (USA)
| 16.35°N, 145.67°E
| Elevation 790 m
The third historical eruption of Anatahan began on 5 January. Occasional, small long-period events were noted as early as 2 January, followed by harmonic tremor early on 4 January, which increased in size through midday 5 January. No large events or explosion signals were associated with the onset of the eruption, which probably occurred middle to late 5 January. Guam tower reported a low plume of thin ash and gas up to ~150 m above the volcano early on 6 January. The VAAC reported a plume at 1225 on 6 January that was 60 km long and 20 km wide blowing westward.
Beginning on 6 January, harmonic tremor gave way to frequent signals of Strombolian explosions. An overflight was accomplished on 7 January by Emergency Management Office personnel, who reported ash rising well above 1.5 km over the volcano. A dome was visible in the crater and bombs were observed rising less than 600 m above the crater.
After 6 January, the amplitude of the explosion signals increased slowly, roughly doubling by 1000 on 10 January, a time when explosions occurred every 3-10 seconds. Later on 10 January, the amplitude of the explosion signals plunged suddenly; by the morning of 11 January the amplitudes again underwent a similar two-fold rise and fall in amplitude.
This ongoing Strombolian eruption was very similar in nature and size to the previous eruption of April-July 2004. As a result, the Commonwealth's Emergency Management Office placed Anatahan Island off limits until further notice and concluded that, although the volcano was not currently dangerous to most aircraft passing nearby, conditions could change rapidly. They noted that aircraft should traverse either upwind of the island, or more than 100 km downwind of the island. Aircraft traveling within 50 km of Anatahan should exercise caution.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 55.972°N, 160.595°E
| Elevation 2882 m
KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Bezymianny from Yellow to Orange on 7 January as seismicity at the volcano increased. On 11 January, the Concern Color Code was raised from Orange to Red (the highest level). According to seismic data, an explosive eruption of the volcano began at 2002 on 11 January and was inferred to have produced an ash column to 8-10 km a.s.l. No visual or satellite data were available as dense clouds obscured the volcano. Seismic activity was above background levels during the past week and increased continuously. About 60 earthquakes of magnitude 1.25-2.25, and numerous weaker, shallow events registered during 7-11 January. Intermittent volcanic tremor was recorded on 10 January.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| United States
| 56.17°N, 159.38°W
| Elevation 2507 m
AVO raised the Concern Color Code at Veniaminof from Yellow to Orange on 10 January as ash emissions from the volcano's intracaldera cone reached heights of nearly 4 km during 8-10 January. Seismicity remained at elevated levels and satellite images showed a persistent thermal anomaly at the intracaldera cone. On 11 January, the Anchorage VAAC reported emission of a thin ash cloud to ~3 km a.s.l. visible on the Perryville NetCam
Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
According to the Washington VAAC, 6 January a steam-and-ash plume was visible at Colima on satellite imagery. The plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended as far as ~38 km NW. On 9 January, two steam-and-ash plumes rose simultaneously from the volcano. One plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended ~30 km NE, while the other plume reached ~4.5 km a.s.l. and extended ~26 km W.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
On 8 January, Etna erupted plumes of black ash from its SE Crater. Following the eruption, a reddish glow emanated from the crater. Toulouse VAAC reported that the ash was barely discernable by satellite imagery.
Sources: Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 5-11 January, surface lava flows were visible at Kilauea along the PKK lava flow on the Pulama pali fault scarp and on the coast. Summit seismicity remained low on both days with only a few long-period earthquakes recorded per day, and weak-to-absent background tremor. At Pu`u `O`o cone, volcanic tremor remained at moderate levels.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Papua New Guinea
| 4.08°S, 145.037°E
| Elevation 1807 m
During 5-11 January, the Darwin VAAC, based on information from RVO, reported that Manam was at Alert Level 2 and continued to produce variable emissions.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
On 9 January, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose up to ~10 km a.s.l. from Popocatépetl and extended S. Satellite imagery indicated that by 10 January, ash clouds had reached the coast of Mexico to the volcano's S and SW.
Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
| United States
| 61.299°N, 152.251°W
| Elevation 3374 m
Seismic unrest continued at Spurr during 1-7 January, with an average of 7 earthquakes recorded per day. No activity was observed in satellite or web camera images during 1-7 January. Spurr remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
| United States
| 46.2°N, 122.18°W
| Elevation 2549 m
Lava-dome growth continued at St. Helens during 5-11 January. Low seismicity also continued - interspersed with a few earthquakes per day as large as about magnitude 1.5. Photographs revealed that the N end of the new dome emerged at a rate similar to that observed over the past several weeks, and that movement of this part of the dome was somewhat decoupled from the fractured bulk of the dome farther S. Thus, during the past several weeks different parts of the dome moved and shifted at different rates. In regard to the issue of the overall (longer-term) rate of dome growth, photographs suggested this had slowed since late November. St. Helens remained at Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
Increased seismicity and volcanic tremor registered at Tungurahua during 5-6 January. There were eleven signals suggesting volcanic emissions and one small explosion. Seismicity then returned to a low level. On 11 January, steam plumes rose ~300 m above the volcano and extended WNW.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.