Activity for the week of 30 November-6 December 2005
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 15.389°S, 167.835°E
| Elevation 1496 m
On 27 November the Aoba volcano (also locally called Mt. Manaro) erupted on Ambae Island in Vanuatu. There have been no casualties reported, but volcanic ash has blanketed houses and food crops. There are concerns that the ash may affect the respiratory systems of local residents and contaminate water sources. The government of Vanuatu has declared the island a disaster zone, and by 6 December 5,000 residents in at least 15 communities in high-risk areas had relocated to safe areas. White steam billowing to 1,500 m above the summit and 2,000 tons of ash per day falling on the island have been reported. The level of Lake Voui, one of the lakes in the summit crater, is now only 150 m below the rim, raising the possibility of floods or lahars if large volumes of lake water are ejected. A small cone is also growing within the crater lake.
Sources: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), News.com.au - News Limited, Port Vila Press, Fairfax New Zealand Limited
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 55.972°N, 160.595°E
| Elevation 2882 m
Seismic data indicated an explosive eruption at Bezymianny on 30 November. Ash plumes were subsequently seen in satellite imagery extending SW at an altitude of about 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Concern Color Code was raised to Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
A lava bench collapse in the East Lae`apuki area on 29 November lasted several hours, sending the 34-acre bench plus another 10 acres of adjacent cliff into the sea. This was the largest bench collapse of the current eruption, which began in January 1983. The collapse left a 20-m-high cliff exposed, from which a 2-m-thick stream of lava was emitted from an open lava tube. Cracks had been observed on the inland portion of the bench several months earlier; visitors are not allowed near the bench, but a viewing area is provided about 3 km away. Growth of the new delta at East Lae`apuki was continuing as of 6 December. At that time breakouts were also active on Pulama Pali.
Sources: Honolulu Advertiser, US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 1.22°N, 77.37°W
| Elevation 4276 m
The hazard status at Galeras was at Level III as of 5 December. Low levels of seismicity and deformation were continuing. Although poor weather conditions obscured the volcano most of the time, steam and gas emissions were photographed on 2 December coming from several locations on the active cone, including the main crater. The plume rose 1 km above the summit on 3 December.
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Activity at Soufrière Hills remained elevated during 25 November-2 December 2005. The seismic network recorded 158 rockfall signals, one volcano-tectonic earthquake, 93 long-period earthquakes, two hybrid earthquakes, and 17 long-period rockfall signals during the reporting period. Measured sulfur dioxide fluxes varied between 600 metric tons per day (t/d) measured on 30 November and 830 t/d on 26 November, with a weekly average of 690 t/d. Dome growth continued on all flanks, although activity was most intense on the S and E; incandescence was observed at night on the SE and E flanks throughout the reporting period. Large rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows collapsed off the E flank of the dome during this period and entered the upper reaches of the Tar River Valley.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| United States
| 46.2°N, 122.18°W
| Elevation 2549 m
Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of St. Helens continued through 30 November, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash.
Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.