Activity for the week of 8 November-14 November 2006
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Tonga Islands
| 18.992°S, 174.775°W
| Elevation -10 m
Pumice rafts originally reported to have been from Metis Shoal are now confirmed to have originated from an island-building eruption of the submarine Home Reef volcano. On 12 August, possibly four days after the beginning of the eruption, a sailor spotted the new island after encountering pumice rafts the previous day. The encounter was written in an on-line journal that described the island as four-peaked. A central crater produced steam plumes and occasional bursts of tephra.
Data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite showed that sulfur dioxide emissions from the Home Reef area began on 8 August, peaked during 8-9 August, and ceased on 15 August. Based on ASTER satellite imagery from 4 October, the island was an estimated 1 km long with an area of 0.23 square km. The temperature of a small lake on the island was 64.7°C. The island was 0.15 square km, based on ASTER imagery from 12 October.
Sources: Fredrik Fransson, Simon Carn, Alain Bernard
| Andaman Islands (India)
| 12.278°N, 93.858°E
| Elevation 354 m
Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Barren Island on 8 November reached altitudes of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
An English-language report on Etna's activity during 31 August-5 November that was recently prepared and distributed by scientists from the Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Volcanologia (INGV) is summarized this week.
Strombolian activity and lava flows from SE Crater that began on 31 August continued until 15 September. During 22-27 September, 3-6 October, and 10-11 October, new but similar eruptive episodes with Strombolian explosions produced lava flows.
On 12 October, a short fissure opened on the ESE flank at the base of SE Crater. Lava spread in the upper Valle del Bove and advanced a few hundred meters downslope. On 17 October, mild spattering led to the growth of three hornitos on the fissure. Vigorous Strombolian activity from a vent in the SE Crater and large explosions occurred on 20 October. Lava flowed less than 1 km SE and a new cone grew at the summit.
On 23 October, vigorous Strombolian activity and lava fountaining from SE Crater marked a new eruptive episode. Lava flowed down the ESE flank and the summit cone rapidly grew. The explosive activity ceased the next day and was followed by ash emissions. Field observations revealed that a 50 m wide collapse pit opened on the SE flank and the new cone at the summit of the SE Crater had collapsed.
On 25 October ash emissions and weak Strombolian activity were observed from the summit of the SE Crater. Lava flows were emitted from fissures on the SSE flank and the S base of the central summit cone. On 27 October, ash emissions were followed by lava flows from the SSE flank fissure. Ash emissions on 29 and 30 October produced ashfall in inhabited areas including Catania, 27 km S of the summit cone. Lava continued to flow from the 25 October fissure and from the 12 October fissure at least until 5 November, when field observers reported actively flowing lava in the uppermost portions of the flow fields.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
Seismic data from Karymsky were not available during 4-10 November, except on 2, 3, and 7 November, when seismicity was elevated above background levels. Explosions produced ash plumes that may have reached altitudes of 3 km (9,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite imagery, plumes drifted NE on 2 November and SE during 6 and 7 November. A thermal anomaly in the crater was detected on 2-3 and 5-7 November. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 8-14 November, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. During 7-9 November, a break-out flow was visible about halfway down Pulama pali. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a typical moderate level.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Papua New Guinea
| 4.08°S, 145.037°E
| Elevation 1807 m
RVO reported that during 1-13 November white vapor plumes from Manam were emitted from South Crater and from Main Crater. Incandescence was noted from both craters during 8-10 November and from Main Crater on 12 November. Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 November a diffuse plume drifted W.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 4.271°S, 152.203°E
| Elevation 688 m
RVO reported that during 25 October-1 November, Rabaul emitted thick white vapor and sub-continuous gray ash clouds. Fine ashfall was reported from areas N and NW, including Rabaul town. On 28 October, a large explosion produced an ash cloud that reached an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Fine ashfall was reported from areas downwind and lava fragments fell onto the flanks. Only continuous, thick, white vapor clouds were emitted during 1-7 November. Two explosive events occurred on 2 November. Ash plumes from the first explosion reached altitudes of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. Plumes from both explosions drifted N. During 3-10 November, occasional small-to-moderate ash emissions produced plumes that drifted SE, away from populated areas. During 11-13 November, thick white vapor and occasional gray ash clouds drifted SE, S, W, NW, and N. Fine ashfall was reported downwind on 11 November.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
According to the Washington VAAC, minor emissions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex were visible on satellite imagery on 14 November. The small ash clouds drifted WSW.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
During 3-10 November, lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills continued and was concentrated on the E part of the edifice. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows originating from a large active lobe on the NE sector of the dome traveled down the SW and NE flanks. High-temperature rockfalls from the NNE sector were deposited on a ridge between Tuitt's and White's Ghauts. Sulfur dioxide measurements were higher than previous weeks, but still within the long-term average range.
Based on information from the MVO, satellite imagery, and pilot reports, the Washington VAAC reported continuous ash-and-gas emissions during 8-14 November. Resulting plumes drifted mainly W and S. A hotspot was detected on satellite imagery during 9-13 November.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| United States
| 46.2°N, 122.18°W
| Elevation 2549 m
Data from deformation-monitoring instruments showed that during 8-14 November the lava dome at Mount St. Helens continued to grow. Inclement weather prohibited visual observations during most of the reporting period.
Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)
| Ryukyu Islands (Japan)
| 29.638°N, 129.714°E
| Elevation 796 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 9 November an eruption plume from Suwanose-jima reached an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that during 7-12 November, emissions from Tungurahua produced ash plumes that reached altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted predominantly NE, NW, and W. On 7 November, a voluminous lahar traveled down gorges to the W and reached as far as the Chambo River, about 7 km from the summit. On 8 November, blocks expelled from the summit rolled down the flanks and ash fall was reported from areas including Casúa (7 km NW) and Baños (8 km NE). On 10, 11, and 13 November, ash fall was reported from areas including Penipe (8 km SW). During 12-13 November, lahars traveled down W and NW drainages and the Vazcún River swelled with muddy water.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| 16.355°S, 70.903°W
| Elevation 5672 m
Based on pilot reports and satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions from Ubinas during 9-11 and 13 November. Ash plumes rose to 5.5-7.3 km (18,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, NW, and NE.
Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 5.05°S, 151.33°E
| Elevation 2334 m
Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 November a diffuse plume from Ulawun reached an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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