Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 5 December-11 December 2007.

 Activity for the week of 5 December-11 December 2007


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Turrialba Costa Rica New

Anatahan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Arenal Costa Rica Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Lokon-Empung from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 December based on visual observations, inflation detected by deformation instruments, and an increase in seismicity. The water in the Tompaluan crater changed color from green to gray and noises from degassing became stronger. White plumes rose from the crater to an altitude of 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. Visitors and tourists were advised not to go within a 2-km radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that members of the media and local communities observed a gas-and-steam plume from Turrialba that rose to an altitude greater than 5.3 km (17,400 ft) a.s.l. on 5 December. Fieldwork confirmed an unusual output of gas from several fumaroles along the S outer wall. Areas burned by acute acidification have extended in the last month. Pastures turned yellowish near the upper areas, and native and exotic tree species were impacted as well as birch tree patches along most drainages. Within the W crater, temperatures of fumaroles reached 280 degrees Celsius and native sulfur was present.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Anatahan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 16.35°N, 145.67°E  | Elevation 790 m

Low-level tremor at Anatahan continued during 30 November-7 December. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Arenal  | Costa Rica  | 10.463°N, 84.703°W  | Elevation 1670 m

In November, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling down the S flank, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Blocks from near the edge of the crater rolled down the SE and SW flanks. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels and few eruptions occurred. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose about 2.2 km (7,100 ft) a.s.l. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

RVO reported that during 18 October-10 December white vapor plumes from Bagana were occasionally accompanied by ash plumes generated by rockfalls from the edges of the lava flow on the SE flank. Occasionally, booming and roaring noises were heard and incandescence at the summit was observed. Two explosions were accompanied by ash plumes on 19 and 27 November. Incandescent lava fragments were ejected from the summit on 7 and 9 December. On 9 December, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. A lava flow became active and was continuously incandescent down the SE flank.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was slightly above background levels during 30 November-7 December. A decrease in activity based on observations of satellite imagery during November and December 2007 prompted KVERT to lower the Level of Concern Color Code to Yellow on 7 December.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that web camera views of fissure D from Kilauea's 21 July fissure eruption were mostly blocked by fog and fumes during 5-9 December. A brief view on 5 December revealed several overflows on the W side of Pond 1, a perched lava pond in the eruption channel formed by fissure D. A pilot report from an overflight on 6 December noted that all of the activity was close to fissure D and none of the SE Thanksgiving Eve breakout (TEB) flows traveled beyond 1.5 km. On 8 December, minor incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater for the first time since 31 August, and was accompanied by a possible inflationary signal. Clear web camera views on 9 and 10 December revealed that the TEB shield continued to build vertically and was an estimated 15 m high. A few small earthquakes were located beneath the summit area and along the upper E rift zone and S-flank fault.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported on 10 December that after five weeks of low-level activity from Rabaul, ash was emitted from a new vent in the NE crater during 8-9 December. Resultant ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S during 8-10 December. Occasional roaring noises were heard. Continuous incandescence from the lava dome on the crater floor was visible at night.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 30 November-7 December. Based on seismic interpretation, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.3 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and hot avalanches occurred. Visual observations and video footage analysis indicated that gas-and-steam plumes rose to altitudes of 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. during the reporting period. One ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (18,700 ft) a.s.l. on 2 December. Based on observations of satellite imagery, a thermal anomaly was present in the crater every day during 30 November-7 December. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from the KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 December.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 3-7 December the lava dome at Soufrière Hills changed very little, based on visual observations. Seismic activity was very low and low-level rockfall activity continued. Fumarolic activity on the N and E flanks of the dome continued. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

Data from deformation-monitoring instruments indicated that during 5-11 December lava-dome growth at Mount St. Helens continued. Based on interpretations of flow-monitoring system data, lahars flowed out of the crater on 4 December, after a weather system passed through the region. Seismicity persisted at low levels, punctuated by M 1.5-2.5, and occasionally larger, earthquakes. Clouds occasionally inhibited visual observations.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes from Suwanose-jima rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 December and drifted W. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that although visual observations were occasionally limited due to cloud cover, ash-and-steam and ash plumes from Tungurahua rose to altitudes of 6-8 km (19,700-26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 5-11 December. Plumes drifted SW, W, and NW. During 5-8 December, incandescence at the summit was observed and roaring noises and "cannon shots" were heard. During 6-7 December, incandescent material was propelled out of the crater and rolled about 1 km down the flanks. Explosions shook the ground and rattled windows in multiple areas, including at the Tungurahua Observatory (OVT) in Guadalupe, 11 km N. During 5-8 December, ashfall was reported in areas to the SW, W, and NW.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NE during 4-7 and 10 December.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive


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Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
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Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Pinatubo Tolbachik
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Cumbal Kilauea Poas Tongariro
Dabbahu Kirishimayama Popocatepetl Tungurahua
Dempo Kizimen Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Turrialba
Descabezado Grande Klyuchevskoy Rabaul Ubinas
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Etna Lamongan Rotorua Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ruang Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Ruapehu Zavodovski
Fernandina Lascar Ruiz, Nevado del Zhupanovsky
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Sabancaya Zubair Group
Fonualei Leroboleng Sakar
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)