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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 20 February-26 February 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 20 February-26 February 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Lopevi Vanuatu New
Veniaminof United States New

Anatahan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Kerinci Indonesia Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Llaima Chile Ongoing
Ol Doinyo Lengai Tanzania Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Lopevi  | Vanuatu  | 16.507°S, 168.346°E  | Elevation 1413 m

Based on a pilot report, the Wellington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Lopevi rose to an altitude of below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 24 February. [Correction: The Wellington VAAC described a gray plume, not an ash plume.]

Source: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

AVO reported that on 22 February several minor ash bursts from Veniaminof were recorded by the seismic network and observed on web camera footage. The bursts rose to an altitude of below 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. but fallout was confined to the crater. Sporadic increases in seismic activity were noted since 11 February, including tremor episodes that lasted 1-2 minutes and occurred several times per hour. The Aviation color code was raised to Yellow and the Alert Level was raised to Advisory. Steam plumes emitted from the intra-caldera cinder cone were seen on video footage during 23-25 February and seismic levels were elevated during 23-26 February.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Anatahan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 16.35°N, 145.67°E  | Elevation 790 m

The USGS reported that emissions of sulfur dioxide from Anatahan were detected by the satellite-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 20-25 February. Seismicity was elevated during 20-26 February, though levels varied greatly during 23-25 February. The Washington VAAC reported that plumes possibly containing some ash were visible on satellite imagery drifting WSW, SW, E, W, and SE during 20 and 23-24 February. A Volcanic Haze Advisory was issued by the Emergency Management Office (EMO) on 25 February for Tinian, Saipan, and Rota because of elevated sulfur dioxide levels. This advisory was cancelled on 26 February. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Sources: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Saipan Tribune



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that a low-level ash plume from Cleveland was visible on satellite imagery and drifted about 300 km SE on 22 February. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

CVGHM reported that white plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.3 km (13,500-14,100 ft) a.s.l. during 14-18 February. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Based on observations during overflights, and web camera views when weather permitted, HVO reported that during 20-26 February activity from Kilauea's fissure segment D was concentrated at the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield and satellitic shields to the E and SE. A lava flow from the shields traveled E towards Kalalua. A pahoehoe lava flow from the SE rootless shield was observed 250 m S of the northern boundary of the Royal Gardens subdivision during an overflight on 20 February. During 25-26 February, lava flows advanced through the subdivision. Diffuse incandescence was observed in Pu'u 'O'o crater through the fume during 20-22 February. Earthquakes were located E of and beneath Halema'uma'u crater, along the S-flank faults, beneath the summit, N of the summit, and along the SW rift zones.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Llaima  | Chile  | 38.692°S, 71.729°W  | Elevation 3125 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that weak steam plumes were observed from Llaima's main crater on 20 February. The 'a'a lava flow that traveled 2.5 km during 2-13 February varied in width between 30-40 m and was 10 m thick. On 21 February small ash plumes rose from the E and SE flanks. Pyroclastic flows descended the E flank and possibly down the W flank. Sulfur dioxide plumes that rose from two craters within the main crater were visible during an overflight. On 22 February, a seismic signal pattern similar to that observed during a previous pyroclastic flow was noted. Ash-and-gas plumes rose from the E flank. On 23 February, an ash-and-gas plume rose from the SE flank.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Ol Doinyo Lengai  | Tanzania  | 2.764°S, 35.914°E  | Elevation 2962 m

The Toulouse VAAC reported that a plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 21 February and rose to an altitude of 18.3 km (60,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on a Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) report, an ash plume rose to an altitude of 14 km (46,000 ft) a.s.l. on 24 February.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 20-26 February. The plumes occasionally contained slight amounts of ash. Explosions on 21 and 22 February resulted in ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7.4 km (24,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Incandescent fragments were ejected from the crater and fell on the flanks. On 22 February, the ejected fragments fell on the SE flank.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and SW during 20-27 February. Roaring noises were occasionally heard. Ashfall was reported in areas mainly downwind, including Kokopo Town (SE), Takubar (SW), and Tokua (SE), during 21-25 February. Incandescence at the summit was noted during 22-24 February. On 25 February an explosion showered the flanks with lava fragments. On 26 February a large explosion was accompanied by a thick billowing ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The flanks were again showered with lava fragments. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo and surrounding areas.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was slightly above background levels during 15-22 February. Based on seismic interpretation, ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 17 and 20 February. During the reporting period strong fumarolic activity was seen daily on video footage and a thermal anomaly was present in the crater on satellite imagery. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that that during 20-26 February the lava dome at Soufrière Hills changed very little, based on limited visual observations during an over flight on 21 February and from ground locations. The E talus slope continued to erode, with both fresh and older material accumulating in the Tar River Valley. Active fumaroles around the lava dome were observed during the overflight. Seismic activity was very low and low-level rockfall activity continued. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

On 21 February, CVO lowered the Alert Level for Mount St. Helens from Watch to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code from Orange to Yellow. Comparison of photographs taken by remote cameras during late January to mid-February 2008 showed no evidence of extrusion. In addition, very few earthquakes were recorded since late January, gas emissions were barely detectable, and daily ground-tilt events stopped.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that although visual observations were very limited due to storm cloud cover, gas-and-steam and ash-and-steam plumes from Tungurahua were spotted and rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 20-26 February. Ash plumes drifted mainly W and SW and ashfall was reported in areas downwind on 19, 23, and 26 February. Lahars or mudflows affected roads in the Pampas sector to the S on 19, 20, and 25 February.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (18,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE on 23 February.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fuego Llaima San Cristobal
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Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
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Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
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Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)