Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 25 February-3 March 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 25 February-3 March 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Aira Kyushu (Japan) New
Chaiten Chile New
Koryaksky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Okmok Fox Islands (USA) New

Colima Mexico Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Redoubt United States Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima during 28 February-1 March. On 1 March, plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. JMA raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). During 1-2 March, three Vulcanian explosions occurred from Showa Crater, ejecting bombs that landed as far away as 1.3 km on 2 March. Deformation was also detected. The Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions or explosions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 2 and 4 March, and an explosion occurred on 3 March.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

On 24 February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that an overflight of Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex revealed that a large amount of material from the 19 February partial dome collapse had accumulated in the basal ring depression surrounding the dome complex and throughout the Chaitén (Blanco) River valley. Most of the collapsed material originated from Domo Nuevo 1. Steam plumes with little ash content rose from the N part of Domo Nuevo 2 and steam and brown ash plumes were emitted from a central spine complex. Steam plumes and sporadic explosions were noted from the S part of Domo Nuevo 1; producing four plumes that mixed and rose 1.5 km above the complex. Small collapses, originating from unstable slopes of the SE part of Domo Nuevo 1, generated block-and-ash flows.

On 26 February, observers in Chaitén town (10 km SW) reported that plumes rose 2 km above the complex. During 26-27 February, small collapses caused the plume to occasionally enlarge and turn brown. On 27 February, an overflight revealed that the S part of Domo Nuevo 1 continued to grow. Numerous fan-shaped deposits from collapses were seen on the S slope. Based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 27 February, and 2-3 March plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted E on 27 February and SE on 3 March.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Koryaksky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.321°N, 158.712°E  | Elevation 3430 m

KVERT reported that during 25 February-4 March seismic activity at Koryaksky was at background levels. Observers reported that during 3-4 March gas plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 200 km ENE. Ash deposits were seen at the summit. Ash deposits 1-2 mm thick accumulated in an area between Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Okmok  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.43°N, 168.13°W  | Elevation 1073 m

On 2 March, AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level for Okmok to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow because of increased seismicity. Short bursts of volcanic tremor at an average rate of one per hour had been detected during the previous 24 hours, an increase above the typical background level. The events were the first sign of significant seismic activity at the volcano since the cessation of the last eruption in August 2008.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

During 25 February-3 March, white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (12,800-14,800 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that on several occasions during 25 February-2 March white gas plumes from Galeras with variable ash content rose to a peak altitude of 5.4 km (17,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW. On 3 March, the Alert Level was lowered from II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks") to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was at background levels during 21-28 February. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. On 24 February, pilots reported a dark plume near the volcano that rose to altitudes of 2.1 km (6,900 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 21 and 24-25 February, and an ash plume that drifted 150 km NE on 21 February. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KEMSD and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions on 28 and 29 February produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-3.4 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 3 March, an ash plume reported by the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP) rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that during 25 February-3 March lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry and occasionally producing explosions. A sizable collapse of the Waikupanaha bench was seen by a visitor on 28 February. Thermal anomalies noted during most days on the coastal plain suggested surface flows.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW; incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. Small amounts of ejected tephra, including Pele's hair, were routinely collected. On 26 February, geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw two spattering and episodically degassing vents about 100 m below the vent rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 1,100 tonnes per day on 27 February and 1 March; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Redoubt  | United States  | 60.485°N, 152.742°W  | Elevation 3108 m

AVO reported that during February 25-March 3 seismic activity at Redoubt was variable. On 25 February, a small mud flow originating from a melt hole in the Drift Glacier traveled several hundred meters. Satellite images revealed that the next day another mudflow traveled several kilometers and covered a large portion of the Drift Glacier. Web camera views and satellite imagery showed no unusual activity; steam plumes within the summit crater were seen on the web camera on 26 and 1 March.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 February an eruption from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced an ash plume that drifted SW. On 27 February and 2 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.4 km (9,200-11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas. Avalanches were seen SW of Caliente dome.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was at background levels during 21-28 February. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Lava flows continued to be active on the S and N flanks. Fumarolic activity was seen during 20-21 and 23-25 February. During 24-25 February, pilots reported dark plumes near the volcano that rose to altitudes of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome and an ash plume that drifted 40 km NNE on 25 February. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KEMSD and analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions on 25 February and 4 March produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.9-5.8 km (16,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted W on 25 February.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 20-27 February activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. On 24 February, a pyroclastic flow traveled E as far as the previous Tar River Valley coastline. The next day, a pyroclastic flow that traveled halfway down Tyre's Ghaut produced a small ash plume that drifted W. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported multiple explosions from Suwanose-jima during 26 February-1 March. On 1 March, resultant plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 2 March, an eruption produced a plume to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion was reported on 3 March.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that, although cloud cover occasionally prevented visual observation during 24 February-3 March, ash plumes from Tungurahua were seen and rose to altitudes of 5.5-10 km (18,000-32,800 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported almost daily in areas to the SW, W, NW, N, and NE. Blocks were sometimes seen or heard rolling down the flanks, and roaring or explosion noises were noted. Strombolian activity at the summit was observed at night on 24 and 25 February. On 25 February, explosions caused the ground and large windows to vibrate. An explosion on 1 March was followed by an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Incandescence at the crater was noted at night on 2 March.

According to a news article from 3 March, ash covered at least 250 hectares of cropland, and additional land for cattle grazing.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), El Comercio



Weekly Reports Archive

Search by Volcano
Agung Fourpeaked Little Sitkin San Cristobal
Ahyi Fuego Llaima San Miguel
Aira Fujisan Loihi San Vicente
Akan Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung Sangay
Alaid Galeras Lopevi Sangeang Api
Alu-Dalafilla Galunggung Machin Santa Ana
Ambae Gamalama Makian Santa Maria
Ambang Gamkonora Makushin Sarigan
Ambrym Gaua Maly Semyachik Sarychev Peak
Anatahan Gorely Manam Saunders
Antuco Great Sitkin Manda Hararo Semeru
Apoyeque Grimsvotn Marapi Semisopochnoi
Arenal Guagua Pichincha Maroa Seulawah Agam
Asamayama Guallatiri Martin Sheveluch
Askja Guntur Masaya Shishaldin
Asosan Hachijojima Mauna Loa Simbo
Augustine Hakoneyama Mayon Sinabung
Avachinsky Heard McDonald Islands Sinarka
Awu Hekla Melimoyu Siple
Axial Seamount Hierro Merapi Sirung
Azul, Cerro Hokkaido-Komagatake Metis Shoal Slamet
Azumayama Home Reef Misti, El Soputan
Bagana Hood Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Balbi Hudson, Cerro Momotombo Sotara
Bamus Huila, Nevado del Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ibu Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Ijen Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliamna Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Ioto Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Iya Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kaba Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kadovar NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raung Villarrica
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Reventador White Island
Epi Kverkfjoll Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erebus Lamington Rinjani Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
Etna Langila Rotorua Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fonualei Lewotobi Sakar
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
Search by Date
Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.





 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement


RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)