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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

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You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 18 March-24 March 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 18 March-24 March 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Galeras Colombia New
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Tonga Islands New
Koryaksky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Redoubt United States New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Dempo Indonesia Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Gamkonora Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Lewotobi Flores Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Okmok Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

On 24 March, INGEOMINAS lowered the Alert Level for Galeras to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). During the previous week daily sulfur dioxide levels were high. Earthquake levels were low in both intensity and occurrence. During 21-23 March, white-colored gas plumes rose to an altitude of 5.4 km (17,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai  | Tonga Islands  | 20.536°S, 175.382°W  | Elevation 114 m

Based on information from Tonga Meteorological Services, analysis of satellite imagery, and pilot observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 18-19 March ash plumes from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to altitudes of 4-5.2 km (13,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and about 480 km ENE. On 20 March, steam plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Wide-spread haze was reported in areas downwind, below an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l., including in Vava'u, a group of islands about 255 km NE of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai. On 21 March, an eruption plume rose to an altitude of 0.8 km (2,500 ft) a.s.l.

According to news articles, the eruption started on 16 March from two vents, one on Hunga Ha'apai and another about 100 m offshore. Video footage and photographs taken from a nearby boat and posted on 20 March showed repeated dark, ash-rich Surtseyan explosions and associated base surges from two vents. A journalist that visited the area reported that the island was covered with black ash, and coconut trees were reduced to black stumps. Dead birds and fish were seen in the water.

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Infobae



Volcano index photo  Koryaksky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.321°N, 158.712°E  | Elevation 3430 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Koryaksky was elevated on 13 March and at background levels on the other days during 14-20 March. Observers reported that gas plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in easterly directions during the reporting period. The plumes were also seen on satellite imagery drifting 140 km away from the volcano. Ash was emitted from the upper fumarolic vent and covered the flanks. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Redoubt  | United States  | 60.485°N, 152.742°W  | Elevation 3108 m

On 18 March, AVO lowered the Alert Level for Redoubt to Advisory and Aviation Color Code to Yellow because seismicity declined to levels recorded prior to the ash emission on 15 March. Seismicity remained low the next day. Shallow earthquake activity was noted again on 20 March. On 21 March, a steam plume rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. Later that day, the rate of seismic events continued to increase, prompting AVO to raise the Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. On 22 March, an explosive eruption began at 2238, prompting AVO to raise the Alert Level to Warning and the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest levels. Four more explosive eruptions occurred, with each lasting between 4-30 minutes. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 18.2 km (60,000 ft) a.s.l., with the bulk of the ash volume between 7.6-9.1 km (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in areas 190-250 km NE. The last explosion ended at 0500 on 23 March. No ash was detected afterwards utilizing radar data, suggesting that if ash emissions were occurring, plumes would be below approximately 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and/or contain particles too fine to be detected. Poor weather hindered visual observations of the volcano. The sixth explosion began on 23 March at 1941, lasted about 17 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. Pyroclastic flows were visible traveling down the N flank in web camera images. According to news articles, Alaska Airlines cancelled 19 flights on 23 March due to ash plumes.

On 23 March, AVO staff visited areas around Redoubt and saw large lahar and flood deposits in the Drift River valley. The eruptions caused melting of the Drift Glacier and greatly increased discharge down the Drift River, causing lahars that traveled more than 35 km, reaching the Cook Inlet. In the middle to upper Drift River valley, high-water marks reached 6-8 m above the valley floor. At the AVO hut (roughly 11 km NNW of the summit), a 6-cm-thick fall deposit was observed. On 24 March, AVO reported that a steam plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) and drifted about 65 km NW.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Associated Press



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Sakura-jima on 20 and 23 March. Additional information on possible resultant plumes was not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 March an ash plume from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 10-16 March Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex continued to grow. Collapses, originating from unstable slopes of the SE part of Domo Nuevo 1 and from a central spine complex, generated block-and-ash flows. Material from the collapses was channeled towards the Chaitén (Blanco) River valley. Ash-and-gas plumes drifted mainly SE. Based on web camera views and SIGMET notices, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 20-21 and 23 March ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Dempo  | Indonesia  | 4.016°S, 103.121°E  | Elevation 3142 m

On 23 March, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Dempo from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) based on visual observations of the crater lake during 5-6 January and 2-4 March, and decreased seismicity since a phreatic eruption on 1 January. Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1-km radius of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV-CT reported that after a week of Strombolian activity and ash emission from the top of Etna's 2008 eruptive fissure, activity from the summit craters during 16-22 March consisted of degassing from the Northeast Crater, the NW Bocca Nuova vent, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater, and along summit fumarolic fields. The activity was observed directly and by utilizing surveillance cameras situated in Milo (about 11 km ESE). The NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued (since 13 May 2008) to produce active lava flows to the N of the SE end of the fissure, along the W wall of the Valle del Bove.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Gamkonora  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.38°N, 127.53°E  | Elevation 1635 m

On 23 March, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Gamkonora from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) based on visual observations and decreased seismicity since January. Diffuse white plumes rose 50-150 m above the crater. Residents and visitors were reminded not to approach or climb the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels on 12 and 18 March; no data was collected during 13-17 March due to technical reasons. According to reports from Yelizovo Airport, pilots saw an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.9 km (12,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 12 March. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 12-14 and 16-17 March, and ash plumes that drifted 200 km in easterly directions during 12-13 and 16-17 March. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 19 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 18-24 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Activity near the Prince Lobe was noted, and thermal anomalies seen on satellite imagery during most days suggested surface flows on the coastal plain. Explosions from the Waikupanaha ocean entry were seen on 19 March. During 19-20 March, the Kupapa'u bench was 450 m wide (along shore) and extended 70 m into the ocean.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume, occasionally tinged brown, that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Tephra and some glassy spatter were retrieved almost daily from collection bins placed near the plume. On 20 March, geologists utilizing an infrared camera saw that a single small spattering vent (another was out of sight to the E) at the bottom of a large overhung cavity beneath the Halema'uma'u crater floor emitted gas and steam. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was 500 and 900 tonnes per day on 19 and 23 March, respectively; the 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

On 18 March, JMA lowered the Alert Level for Kuchinoerabu-jima from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Sulfur dioxide emissions decreased in January and the rate of deformation decreased in February. Seismicity was also low. The volcano had been in a state of unrest since September 2008.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Lewotobi  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.542°S, 122.775°E  | Elevation 1703 m

On 23 March, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Lewotobi from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) based on visual observations and decreased seismicity during March. Rarely seen diffuse white plumes rose 25 m above the crater and drifted E. Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Okmok  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.43°N, 168.13°W  | Elevation 1073 m

On 20 March, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Okmok to Normal and the Aviation Color Code to Green. Seismic activity had been at low to near background levels and satellite views showed no activity during the previous two weeks. The last confirmed ash emission at Okmok occurred on 19 August 2008.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that emissions of steam and gas from Popocatépetl were visible during 18-24 March; the plumes contained slight amounts of ash during 20-21 and 23 March. An explosion on 23 March ejected incandescent fragments that landed near the crater. Based on information from CENEPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that a minor emission on 23 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. A small ash plume was seen on satellite imagery drifting SE.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 16-20 March gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to a maximum altitude of 1.7 km (5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Blue vapor was visible during intervals between ash cloud emissions. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night, and incandescent tephra was occasionally ejected from the crater during periods of heightened activity. Light ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including in the Duke of York Islands about 20 km E.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 13-20 March seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 12-14 and 16-19 March. Strong fumarolic activity was seen on 13, 14, and 18 March and incandescence from the lava dome was seen at night on 14 and 18 March. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that observations during an overflight of the Soufrière Hills lava dome on 18 March confirmed that a seismic signal recorded earlier that day was from a pyroclastic flow; the flow traveled E down the Tar River Valley, almost reaching the sea.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that during 17-18 and 22 March ash plumes from Tungurahua rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.5 km (18,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and NNE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind on 17 and 20 March. On 21 March, lahars carrying blocks up to 30 cm in diameter traveled down the Mapayacu drainage to the SW. Lahars were also seen in the Mandur drainage to the NW.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a plume from Ubinas rose to an altitude of 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 March. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)