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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 8 April-14 April 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 8 April-14 April 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Aira Kyushu (Japan) New
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Fernandina Ecuador New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Llaima Chile New
Miyakejima Japan New
Redoubt United States New

Arenal Costa Rica Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Koryaksky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 8 April an eruption from Sakura-jima produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA reported that on 9 April a Vulcanian explosion from Showa crater on the E flank ejected bombs as far away as 1.3 km. A plume rose to an altitude of 4.8 km (15,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW; JMA stated that the plume altitude was the highest altitude a plume reached since June 2006. A pyroclastic flow traveled 1 km E. According to a news article, heavy ashfall was reported in Kagoshima City (about 10 km W), the first ashfall reported there since October 2002. On 10 April, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and S.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Asahi



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

KVERT reported that during 3-10 April observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed continued activity. Gas-and-steam plumes with some ash content rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 8 km in southerly directions. Light ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 5 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from Yelizovo Airport, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 12 April an ash plume drifted 6 km SE at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fernandina  | Ecuador  | 0.37°S, 91.55°W  | Elevation 1476 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, IG reported that an eruption of Fernandina started sometime during 2200 on 10 April and 0030 on 11 April. Several thermal anomalies were seen on satellite imagery, possibly indicating active lava flows. A representative of the Galápagos National Park reported that tourists and park employees observed the eruption during the early hours of 11 April. According to news articles, Galápagos National Park personnel conducting an overflight indicated that the eruption occurred from a fissure on the SW flank, about 500 m from the summit crater. The fissure was 200 m long and 10 m wide, and ejected lava fountains 15 m high. A gas-and-ash plume drifted SW. The eruption took place near the site of the previous eruption in 2005.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VVAC reported that during 11-14 April gas and possible ash plumes drifted up to 370 km W, SW, S, and N. On 14 April, a large thermal anomaly and sulfur dioxide were detected. The observatory also reported smoke from burning vegetation.

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that fumarolic activity from Kliuchevskoi was observed during 3-10 April. Satellite imagery indicated a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 5 and 6 April, and weak volcanic tremor was detected during 5-8 April. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 9 April produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Imagery later indicated that any ash that may have been present had dissipated. On 11 April, imagery again indicated a possible eruption; any resultant ash plumes had dissipated by a few hours later. The Level of Concern Color remained at Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Llaima  | Chile  | 38.692°S, 71.729°W  | Elevation 3125 m

On 8 April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that, after 74 hours of a vigorous Strombolian eruption from Llaima and accompanying lava flow emissions, activity declined quickly on 6 April until reaching a low level characterized by small amounts of ash emissions. On 7 April, weak emissions of gas and ash were observed. An overflight revealed that the main crater was completely obscured by a large pyroclastic cone with four inactive craters. Sulfur dioxide and hydrochloric gasses were emitted. Two lava flows descended the W flank. The more southerly lava flow was about 4.5 km long and melted part of the glacier, causing a lahar to travel towards the Calbuco River. The more northerly lava flow was similar in length, and branched off into two 1-km-long flows. It too caused a lahar. On the NE flank, a lava flow that originated from the base of the pyroclastic cone caused lahars that descended into the valley between Curacautín (30 km NNW) and the Conguillío National Park.

During 7-10 April, intermittent incandescence from a lava flow at the SW base of the pyroclastic cone was observed. Incandescent blocks originating from the lava flow descended W. On 8 April, gasses emitted from multiple points on the pyroclastic cone formed a plume that drifted NE. Preliminary calculations indicated that the height of the pyroclastic cone exceeded the top of the main crater by 70 m, making the summit elevation 3,240 m a.s.l. During 9-10 and 13-14 April, gas and steam plumes rose from the pyroclastic cone; views were obscured by clouds on 11 and 12 April. On 14 April, fumarolic activity from the pyroclastic cone was again noted. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Miyakejima  | Japan  | 34.094°N, 139.526°E  | Elevation 775 m

JMA reported that on 1 April an eruption from Miyake-jima produced an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater and drifted E. They also stated that the last eruption was on 8 May 2008.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Redoubt  | United States  | 60.485°N, 152.742°W  | Elevation 3108 m

Based on seismic data and satellite imagery, AVO reported that Redoubt's lava dome continued to grow during 8-14 April. On 8 April, a small steam plume possibly containing ash was seen on satellite imagery and on the web camera, and drifted NE at low altitudes. A continuous sulfur dioxide plume seen on satellite imagery drifted 965 km. On 9 April, RADAR data showed no significant ash emissions. An M 3.3 earthquake was located about 4 km ENE of the summit. Observations showed that the lava dome grew in the same location as the previous lava dome, was circular in shape, and 400 m in diameter. A report on 10 April indicated that seismicity had remained steady since the last explosion on 4 April; small repetitive volcanic earthquakes were detected. Gas, steam, and ash emitted from the vent formed a plume that rose to an altitude less than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. On 11 April, A vigorous steam plume that may have contained small amounts of ash was visible on the web camera. Satellite imagery showed a plume that drifted NW at altitudes below 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Observations on 13 and 14 April were obscured by clouds. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Arenal  | Costa Rica  | 10.463°N, 84.703°W  | Elevation 1670 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during March activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, and occasional avalanches from the fronts of lava flows that traveled down the SW flanks. Acid rain and small amounts of ejected pyroclastic material affected the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-90 km W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that cloudy weather often prevented observations of Chaitén's Domo Nuevo 1 and Domo Nuevo 2 lava-dome complex during 30 March-6 April. Occasional clear views revealed that collapses from the central spine continued, and a new smaller spine grew on the southern area of Domo Nuevo 1. On 8 April, seismic activity gradually increased. During 11-12 April, the numbers and magnitudes of earthquakes were the highest; magnitudes reached M 4.5. The Alert Level remained at Red. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 9-11 and 14 April, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and ESE.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

During 8-10 and 12-13 April, white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-5.2 km (12,800-17,100 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted E, S, SW, and W.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 April an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels on 2 and 3 April and at background levels on 4 April; no data was collected during 5-10 April due to technical reasons. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a weak thermal anomaly on the volcano on 5 April. Fumarolic activity was seen by volcanologists on 9 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 8-14 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Surface flows on the coastal plain or from the Prince lobe were seen or detected by satellite imagery. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a white plume occasionally tinged brown that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 1,000, 900, and 1,000 tonnes per day on 8, 9, and 13 April, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day. On 13 April, Pele's hair, tiny glass spheres, and ash were retrieved from collection bins placed near the plume. On 14 April, ash was collected from the bins. Seismic instruments recorded a M 5 earthquake beneath the S flank, 12 km SE of the summit, at a depth of 10 km.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Koryaksky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.321°N, 158.712°E  | Elevation 3430 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Koryaksky was elevated on 7 and 8 April and at background levels on the other days during 3-10 April. Weak volcanic tremor was detected on 7 April. Gas plumes containing a small amount of ash originating from two vents on the NW flank rose to an altitude of 5.4 km (17,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, NW, SE, and SW during the reporting period. Gas-and-ash plumes were also seen on satellite imagery and drifted 290 km in multiple directions. On 11 April, KVERT staff reported ashfall in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (30 km S). Ash accumulated to 0.1-2.5 cm thickness near the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS) FED RAS. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 3-9 April white and gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Plumes drifted SE and NW. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and roaring noises were reported. Light ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 75 km NW. On 14 April, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and up to 120 km NW.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 3-10 April. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. during 3-5 and 8-9 April. According to observers, fumaroles were active during 3-7 and 9 April. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruptions during 11-14 April produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.5 km (15,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 3-10 April activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. Heavy rainfall during 8-9 April caused lahars in multiple river valleys. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 8 and 10 April. Details of possible resultant ash plumes on either day were not reported.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 8-14 April, IG reported that clouds mostly prevented observations of Tungurahua; a steam plume seen on 9 April rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW. On 10 April, slight ashfall was reported in areas to the SW. The next day, a lahar traveled SW down the Mapayacu drainage. On 14 April, a steam-and-gas plume containing some ash rose to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)